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PSS 1411 Exam 3
Terms in this set (69)
nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O)
iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), boron (B), copper (Cu), chloride (Cl), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni)
Main functionality of Nitrogen
major component of plant chemicals: amino acids, etc
Main functionality of Phosphorus
Energy transfer, germination, most aspects of plant growth
Main functionality of Potassium
protein synthesis, enzyme activation, disease resistance, enhances fruiting and flowering, water balance
Main functionality of Iron
involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll, and it is essential for the maintenance of chloroplast structure and function
Why is Iron a particular problem in West Texas soils?
powerpoint slide; the deficiency is caused by the high pH levels of our soils
nutrient compounds in the soil are examined
nutrient deficiencies of the actual plants are examined
What are other problems to consider besides nutrient defiency that can look similar?
- poorly drained soils
- over or under watering
- pH extremes
- root diseases
- root pruning
- plant pests
- soil compaction
- adverse soil temperatures
animal manure, compost, fish meal and bone meal
mined or synthetically manufactured mineral supplements; ammonium sulfate (21-0-0), ammonium phosphate (16-20-0), 10-10-10
advantages of organic fertilizers
- Contain more than one nutrient
- Nutrients are released slowly
- Act as soil amendments
disadvantages of organic fertilizers
- Usually low in nitrogen
- manures may contain high amounts of salts (potassium, sodium, nitrates)
-excessive use can lead to groundwater pollution
advantages of inorganic fertilizers
- Usually concentrated, so small amounts provide necessary nutrients
- Usually economical
- Provide plants with readily available nutrients
disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers
- Often applied excessively (resulting in salt injury to plant and resulting in excessive plant growth)
- Some nutrients, especially nitrogen, are very soluble and can be readily leached (resulting in nutrients lost from root zone and resulting in groundwater pollution)
What is a soil amendment?
A material that indirectly improves plant growth by:
1. improving soil structure, drainage
2. increasing the soil's water and nutrient holding capacity
3. modifying soil pH
Why does a soil amendment not work as a main fertilizer?
The fertilizer directly improves plant growth and soil amendment indirectly improves it
How to determine number of pounds of N-P-K and costs
#1) % of nutrients x weight of bag = ___ lbs of nutrient in bag
#2) price of bag / ___ lbs of nutrient in bag
#3) lower answer is better price
What are high/low tunnels are what are they useful for?
Double protection from frost in Winter; modify humidity, air temperature, soil temperature, and solar radiation; help protect produce from wind, hail, strong rains, and pests
Why should you consider families when planting vegetables/fruit?
you don't want to plant plants all from the same family in one area because plants in the same families share genetics which means they share diseases and pests
What is crop rotation and how could it be used with vegetable gardening or farming?
When the farmer plants different plants in a rotation like sequence; This is important so the crops do no use up all the nutrients in one area and the soil has time to recover
What is succession planting, and how would it be helpful in garden planning?
staggering plantings or plant multiple crops in the same area throughout the season. Each time a crop is finished you pull it and plant a new one
What is lasagna gardening and why is it an easy way to get organic matter into the soil?
1) put cardboard or three layers of newspaper directly on top of the grass or weeds in the area you've selected for your garden
2) put organic material (or compost) on top of that, alternating between "brown" and "green" layers
very low maintenance and improves water retention
Why are some benefits of organic mulch, and why is particle size of the matter important?
- Reduces irrigation needs by at least 50%
- At least 1 inch up to 3 inches
- Particle size is important because it helps with water retention and keeps weeds out
What is companion planting?
the three crops are planted close together. Flat-topped mounds of soil are built for each cluster of crops. The three crops benefit from each other.
What is square foot gardening?
• 1 sq ft grid
• Makes plant spacing faster
• Best for Raised beds
• Very popular for home use
• Can implement Companion planting.
What do you have to consider when watering vegetables in a City water restriction?
- KNOW CRITICAL WATER PERIODS FOR YOUR VEGETABLES.
- With good Soil Organic Matter- Garden can go
- 2-7 days between watering.
- Avoid Heavy water use crops like beans and squash
- Grow only what you need!!!
What are some examples of perennial vegetables that grow in west Texas?
Artichoke, cardoons, asparagus, sorrell
What is a mesclun mix comprised of?
• Johnny Seed Premium Green Mix. (mix of lettuce and greens)
• Can also separate lettuce in one section and greens in another and make your own mixes.
• Red mustard, green mustard, chinese cabbage, Pac choi, tatsoi
• Maturity - 21 Days- very young
• Get Four cuts or more from it.
• Had luck in drought year when planted between tall crops- shading in west afternoon sun.
What is Whole system IPM?
a pest control strategy focused on the long term prevention of pests and their damage
Steps to IPM
2. Pest ID and Life Cycle
3. Regular Monitoring
4. "Aesthetic" Thresholds
5. Appropriate Management
What should you consider for the Variety of your Crop?
a field containing a variety of plants does not offer a large block of food for the insect, like a field with only one plant does, so it will not get the nutrients it needs to survive and thrive; when you grow something over and over again and it keeps bringing in the same pests, thats a sign you should pick another plant
What are some key things to consider in developing a IPM plan for long term prevention of pests.
- Ecology of pests and beneficials
- Identifying best strategies
- build healthy soil
- growing healthy plants
- habitat conservation and establishment (bringing variety of plants with beneficial insects)
Why is it important to identify a pest correctly and know it's life cycle
To identify the correct treatment and to identify which are beneficiaries; figure out its weakness (which is youngest age most times)
What is one way to monitor insects?
sticky traps, pheromone trap, catchment device from trees, biological control (applicator applied)
What is a trap crop?
a crop planted to attract insect pests from another crop, especially one in which the pests fail to survive or reproduce
What is a insectary?
A place that attracts insects
What's important when building an insectary
-Seed and plant sources
-Cost of ground preparation, planting and maintenance (irrigation, weeding, etc.)
-At least one year following establishment of perennials
-Multiple plantings of annuals for beneficial habitat
What is a allelopathy? How can it be used for weed control?
- Ability for a plant to exude chemicals to prevent competition
- Natural weed control
What is a native plant?
A native (indigenous) species is one that occurs in a particular region, ecosystem, and habitat without indirect or direct actions from humans
Non-natives are that are ok
Fruits vegetables herbs livestock honey bees and many flowers
Salt cedar siberian elm giant reed; They are worrisome because they can take away water that should naturally be somewhere else and compete with the native plants
What is biodiversity and how is it useful?
Biodiversity is the diversity of life; Texas Natives are more adaptable to life in our area
What are the main reasons to consider Native plants in a landscape?
Environmentally friendly, they have naturally adapted to this environment, lower maintenance (non-natives have to fight the natural environment to stay healthy), wildlife friendly
Advantages to growing a native lawn in texas
Needs less mowing, watering, and weeding and also replicates natures short grass prairies
Steps to have a native lawn
- Prepare the soil
- use appropriate native species (buffalograss, blue grama, curly mesquite / don't just use all one type of grass)
- mow less, 3-4 inches, may opt to stop irrigating after 3-4 months to allow the lawn to go drought dormant
- minimize nutrient inputs
What is a pocket prairie?
- Solarize (using the sun using plastic makes it get really hot and burn out the plants beneath) to reclaim the area (round-up works too)
- Usually home to 25-50 native species, make your own seed mix
What is a Rain garden?
- Concave depressions that store water for direct landscape use
- Greatly reduce storm water runoff to protect from flooding and drainage problems and prevent bodies of water from getting pollution
What is a benefit of Texas Native trees?
Energy savers if you plant them on the southwest side because:
- Deciduous trees act as a natural coolant from the shade in the summer, lose their leaves in the winter and allows sunlight through to heat the house
- Evergreens give privacy and windbreaks
Know 5 native plant examples with common name that can be from Plant ID quiz or this talk.
Hinckley's Oak - Quercus hinckleyi
Flame Acanthus - Anisacanthus quadrifidus var. wrightii
American Beautyberry - Callicarpa Americana
Weeping Texas Redbud - Cercis canadensis var. texensis 'Traveller'
Mexican Buckeye - Ungnadia speciosa
Reasons to understand landscape water needs
1. Water Conservation
2. Prevent Water runoff
4. Landscape Quality
Transpiration definition and what influences transpiration rate
Transpiration- loss of water in form of water vapor, 90% of loss is from leaves
- Stomata (Guard Cells)
- Mesophyll Cells
Ways to measure transpiration directly from the plant
- Weight Loss
-Lysimeter- weight underneath the plant (barometer)
- Gas exchange
-Sealing Plant or leaf, stem in a chamber
-Measure difference in Water Air Content
the process by which water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere by evaporation from the soil and by transpiration from plants.
Crop/landscape evapotraspiration equation.. Need to know how to plug in components to get a Crop evapotranspiration
ETc= Kc x ETo
ETc: Crop evapotranpiration rate (how much to water) (give in inches)
Kc: Crop coefficient (% from research) (shows weather a plant is high or low after user overall growth season)
ETo: Reference Evapotranspiration (weather station) (historically, daily, worldly)
Need to also be able to develop a Landscape Coefficient from a table of information regarding species, microclimate and density.
(0 ET means not needing any water)
Landscape Coefficient Formula (Kl)
Kl = Species x density factor x microclimate factor
Know Best Management Practices for reducing water usage
-water deep and infrequently
-water early in the morning
-avoid deep percolation: sandy soil
-avoid runoff- clay soils
removes pollution out of the water and sends it back into the river, below ponds, want to do it as deep as you can, not a good plan if you get a lot of rain (15-20 in per year)
Used to slow down the water movement from impervious surfaces; Environmental Solution to curb/gutter; Storm sewer system; shallow open channel
best for areas that receive light rain, too much could collapse the roof. Key is a waterproof barrier
won't freeze over, less ice; allows pollution to go into the pavement instead of into the water source like a river
solution for rooftop runoff; cisterns or rain barrels; online vendors provide good selection; allows for collection and use of rainwater for irrigation
In a 30 lb fertilizer bag, you have 40-20-15 on the front of the bag. Which number is Nitrogen and how many lbs of Nitrogen are in the bag?
40 and 12 lbs
How can Natives in the landscape promote environmental stewardship for a resident?
Less inputs like water and fertilizer; Lower maintenance on pruning/hedging for perennials; Increase natural wildlife to the area; Promote healthy plants
You are shopping for the best deal on fertilizer. You have two bags you are comparing for best value of Nitrogen
1st bag is 20-10-10, 30 lb bag and is $20
2nd bag is 15-10-10 20 lb bag and is $12
Which one is the better deal and what is the $/lb?
1st bag is best value at $3.33/lb
What nutrient is deficient if the leaves have green viens and yellow to white in the leaf space?
Mulch with smaller particle density is best for what in plant production?
Improve soil water retention; Decrease weed germination
The following describes the main focus of Whole system IPM
This method uses a holistic ecosystem approach with a focus on prevention of pest
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