The fimbra of the oviducts are securely connected to the ovaries by a series of ligaments and connective tissue.
The alveoli (alveolar cells) are the structures within the mammary glands where milk is produced.
The legs or crura of the clitoris extend back inside the woman's body passing alongside the urethra but stopping short of the vagina.
The corpus albicans surrounds the ovum at ovulation and provides nourishment for the ovum from the time it is released from the ovary until it is inside the lumen of the oviduct.
For the undifferentiated gonads to develop into testes, the embryo must be exposed to high levels of androgens and must have receptors which allow it to respond to androgens.
The areola is made up of smooth muscle which contracts when cold causing the nipple to become erect.
Development of the genital tubercle into a penis requires the presence of and the ability to respond to androgens, inductor substance and Mullerian inhibiting factor.
The posterior pituitary is made up of the endings of axons of neurons whose cell bodies are in the hypothalamus.
Naturally-produced estrogens prevent parked increases and marked decreases of blood pressure.
The perimetrium is the thickest layer of the uterine muscle wall which changes as estrogen and progesterone levels vary throughout the monthly cycle.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)/vasopressin (AVP):
is released into bloodstream by the posterior pituitary. inhibits or reduces the amount of water lost in urine.
Which of the following is TRUE about menses?
The majority of menstrual fluid is made up of the secretions (fat and glycogens) stored in the endometrial cells during the secretory phase of the monthly cycle.
In Gorman and Cole's article, "Between the sexes," which stance do the authors take on the practice of removing the reproductive organs and reconstructing the genitals of infants with intersex traits?
This practice should be DISCONTINUED because it only heightens the secrecy around intersex conditions which has negative consequences for the individual and their family.
only reach maximum development and functionality during pregnancy and lactation.
An embryo with an XO sex- chromosome make-up:
typically develops female external genitalia.
The _______________ glands on the areola of the breast are involved in lubricating the nipple and protecting the breast from infection during breastfeeding.
The sticky cumulus:
helps the ovum adhere to the wall of the ovary until it is picked up by the fimbra and then makes it possible for the cilia on the fimbra to move the ovum into the oviduct.
The corpora cavernosa are:
erectile tissue located in the clitoris which engorge with blood during sexual stimulation.
produces mucus that is thin and slippery like raw egg whites around the time of ovulation when estrogen levels are high and progesterone levels are low.
The labia minora
have many sebaceous glands on their inner surface that help to keep the region clean of urine and menstrual fluids.
prevents coordinated contractions of the uterus during pregnancy. stimulates appetite and food intake.
During embryological sex differentiation:
the uterus, oviducts and vagina develop from the Mullerian ducts in the absence of or inability to respond to androgens, Mullerian inhibiting factor and induction substance.
The uro-genital fold
becomes part of the urethra when androgens are high during development.
During the secretory phase of the monthly cycle:
the cells of the endometrium fill with fats and glycogen in preparation for the implantation of a fertilized ovum.
The typical life-span of the corpus luteum in a non-pregnant and normally-cycling woman is:
14 +/- 2 days.
In the chapter, "Boy or girl?," Karkazis points out that penis or phallus size traditionally has been the determining factor in gender assignment of individuals with intersex traits. The phallus is traditionally judged to meet the requirements of being called a penis if:
it is large enough for vaginal penetration.
___________ is the form of estrogen most associated with ___________.
estradiol / normally cycling women of reproductive age
The X chromosome:
may come from either the mother or the father.
Which of the following is TRUE about the oviducts?
The ovum moves more quickly through the ampulla of the oviduct than through the isthmus.
serve as shock absorbers protecting the cervix from injury during sexual activity involving penetration of the vagina.
The immature ova found in the ovaries of a cycling woman were originally formed:
before she was born.
An ectopic pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy in which:
the fertilized ovum implants and develops anywhere except in the upper two-thirds of the uterus.
According to Fronek's article, "Current perspectives on the ethics of selling international surrogacy support services," the current international commercial surrogacy (ICS) practices are ethically unsatisfactory. What does Fronek suggest to improve the ethics of ICS?
Adopting a consequentialist approach that takes social justice issues into consideration Focusing on the well-being of the surrogate women A human and child rights approach
Which of the following is produced mostly by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus?
refers to pain that occurs at time of ovulation.
Fertilization of the ovum typically takes place:
at the ampulla-isthmus junction of the oviduct.
is the very sensitive area of tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus.
Which of the following is TRUE?
Each ovary is suspended in the pelvic cavity by 3 ligaments.
are released into the bloodstream for transport to their site(s) of action.
During the monthly cycle:
the length of the preovulatory phase is variable and accounts for differences in cycle length from woman-to-woman and within a given woman from month-to-month.
According to Spade's "Mutilating Gender," why might transgender individuals feel compelled to "pass full-time?"
If transgender individuals do not perform their gender identity "full-time", the medical professionals responsible for approving sexual reassignment surgery may believe that the transgender individual will come to regret the surgery. Passing full time can be necessary to convince medical providers that a GID diagnosis is appropriate.
decrease food intake/appetite while increasing general activity level.
Which of the following are among the factors REQUIRED for the undifferentiated gonads to develop into functional ovaries?
the migration of the primordial germ cells to the undifferentiated gonads the presence of at least 2 functional X chromosomes
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH):
has more noticeable effects on the development of reproductive organs of XX individuals than XY individuals.
In "Looking back: Egg donors' retrospective evaluations of their motivations, expectations, and experiences during their first donation cycle" by Kenney and McGowan, what do the authors suggest for improving experiences of first time egg donation?
Providing nonidentifiable information regarding the outcomes of anonymous egg donation Procedural changes to assure that donors feel important and respected as contributors to the treatment procedures Longitudinal studies to more clearly track donors' physical and mental health over a period of many years
has an opening that is found between the clitoris and the vaginal opening in the vestibule.
Women who are experiences severe dysmenorrhea have been shown to have:
extremely high levels of prostaglandins in their uteri.
Inhibin is produced by the:
corpus luteum. ovarian (Graafian) follicle.
What sex chromosomes are found in an individual with Swyer Syndrome?
Are the gonads of an individual with Swyer Syndrome completely male, completely female, ambiguous (a combination of male and female), or do they remain undifferentiated?
Are the internal genitalia of an individual with Swyer Syndrome completely male, completely female, ambiguous (a combination of male and female), or do they remain undifferentiated?
Are the external genitalia of an individual with Swyer Syndrome completely male, completely female, ambiguous (a combination of male and female), or do they remain undifferentiated?
What is the hormone producing site within the ovary during the PREOVULATORY PHASE of the monthly cycle?
Follicle/ovarian follicle/Graafian follicle
List the THREE hormones that this structure (the one talked about in question 2A) produces and releases during the PREOVULATORY phase of the monthly cycle.
estrogen/estradiol androgen inhibin
What are the 4 things released from the Graafian follicle at ovulation? Order does not matter.