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Principles of Learning and Teaching: Theorists to Education and Learning Theories
Personal Study Guide for Praxis II: Principles of Learning and Teaching Based on outline of topics covered on test. Not in any way a legitimate study guide!
Terms in this set (150)
Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of development and behavior modification.
Theory of Discovery Learning; Constructivist. Children solve problems using prior examples and reflection activities.
Believed that the education and instruction of children should include four separate features.
One. Children should be encouraged to explore and learn about their world, and teachers should seek out how to foster that curiosity.
Two. Information should be easily accessible and comprehensible, so teachers should research the most effective way to present new information.
Three. The order or sequence should be logical and orderly, so that children can follow along with the development of an idea or way of thinking.
Four. A method of reward should be installed, so that children can be encouraged and feel that their participation and responses are good. Verbal praise is an extrinsic reward, while the child's pride in figuring out the concept is an intrinsic reward.
"Learning Through Experience", Project based, free activity, cooperative learning, teach students how to think for themselves, social success, hands-on activities, United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980), sensorimotor- 0-2 years coordinating visual sensations with motorskills
preoperational- 2-7 years able to internally represent images in own mind. EGOCENTRISM, concrete operational- 7-12 years understand conservation volume, length, colour etc in objects, formal operational- 12+ abstract thinking and logical thinking. forming own beliefs and morality.
Socialcultural Theory - views cognitive development as a socially mediated process where adult support (called scaffolding) helps children master skills they can't do on their own.
Studied into moral development stages: Pre-Conventional (punishment/obedience), Conventional (peer influence primary), and Post Conventional (moral conduct/ human rights), hierarchical scale for measuring moral maturity.Moral maturity is evidenced by belief that there are universal rights and duties.
Higher order thinking, engaging students in critical thinking, There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Transfer learning theory
Transfer of learning-- connection or application of learned material to future skill or knowledge acquisition. transferring one's knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to another.
If teachers structure their lessons in ways that allow the transfer of information, it pushes students to think it more broadly by synthesizing: using old ideas to create new ones, creating generalizations, making predictions and drawing conclusions.
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels. (Bandura)
The process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives.
Zone of Proximal Development
in Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction.
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence.
Development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving.
Development, with age, of increasingly sophisticated understandings of other people and of society as a whole, as well as increasingly effective interpersonal skills and more internalized standards for behavior.
Growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically.
A mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process information, and demonstrate learning.
Americans With Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commericial buildings.
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) ensures rights of nondiscriminatory treatment in all aspect of disabled individuals lives; fair and appropriate education, appropriate evaluation, individualized education program, least restrictive environment, parent and student participation in decision making, procedural safeguards.
Section 504 Rehabilitation Act
A federal law that protects the civil rights of individuals with disabilities. This law is closely intertwined with IDEA. Children with disabilities who are not eligible for special education may qualify for accommodations under Section 504.
The 2 to 4 percent of the population who have IQ scores greater than 130.
English Language Learners
Students whose first language is not English and who need help in learning to speak, read, and write in English.
Law of Effect - behavior is strengthened with reinforcements.
Called the father of behaviorism, he claimed that a psychologist's only interest should be in observable behavior.
Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs., Needs organized in hierarchal form. Lower needs satisfied before we can attend to higher level needs. Physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem, self actualization.
B F Skinner
Behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons.
Proposed that individuals go through 8 distinct, universal stages of development. Each stage consists of a developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis.-- trust v mistrust - autonomy v shame - initiative v guilt - industry v inferiority - identity v role confusion - intimacy v isolation - generativity v stagnation - integrity v despair.
The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will.
The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others.
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
Individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:
1. There is a positive link between effort and performance
2. Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward
3. The reward will satisfy an important need
4. The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the work effort worthwhile.
Standards of Conduct
Practice behaviors that are defined by members of a profession.
Positive Learning Environment
The teacher provides a well-managed, safe, and orderly environment that is conducive to learning and encourages respect for all. , an environment that promotes emotional and intellectual fairness and security, can enhance self-esteem in all learners
-could provide activities that promote success in reading and writing, amply practice and careful corrections, focus on relevant background information, actively involve learners, provide-native language support, focus on content that and activities that are relevant to the students, create roles for family and community members, hold high expectations and being responsible to cultural and personal diversity-
The use of explicit outcomes of what students should know and be able to do, which are outlined in standards, to develop instruction and assessments.
Standards and Frameworks
A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of clear, definable standards of what the student should know and be able to do. Academic standards are the benchmarks of quality and excellence in education such as the rigor of curricula and the difficulty of examinations.
A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by making models, maps and frameworks in their mind. ~ is the opposite of behaviorism.
The methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material.
Diagramming main ideas and connections between them.
Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.
Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action.
View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality. (Learning by doing.)
Learning as Experience
A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex problem similar to those in the outside world.
Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions.
Approach to instruction in which students develop an understanding of a topic through firsthand interaction with the environment.
Can be either positive or negative, intended to reduce the occurrence of a behavior.
Scope and Sequence
Scope is what you are covering and sequence is when you are covering it.
Known as the "feeling" domain and is divided into categories that specify the degree of a person's depth of emotional response to tasks; it includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes, and appreciations.
The domain involved in the learning of a new procedure or skill; often called the doing domain.
The "thinking" domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
Behaviors for objectives must be able to be seen or heard so teachers can measure and assess how well an objective and/or a task has been accomplished.
A process that provides an individual with instruction and practice to develop or strengthen skills which are nonexistent or weak.
Educational approach that provides a child with extra learning experiences that the standard curriculum would not normally include.
An integrated learning experience that is structured around a theme.
Many subject areas are included under one topic or theme (also called thematic units or an integrated approach).
Joint communication and decision making among educational professionals to create an optimal learning environment for students and especially for students with disabilities. A philosophy about how to relate to others—how to learn and work.
Ask open ended questions. An approach to evaluation that assimilates input from relevant sources.
The ability and willingness to assess claims critically and to make judgments on the basis of objective and supported reasons.
The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances. For example, Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; therefore, cats are four-legged animals".
Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case For example, The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.
A teacher-led instructional procedure that provides students with specific instructions on a task, teacher-led practice, independent practice, and immediate corrective feedback. Also referred to as explicit instruction.
-involving the students in inquiry, problem solving and discovery
-allows them to explore the environment, work with manipulative and learn by doing and playing.
-takes advantage of students interests and encourages them to find their own solutions.
Perhaps the most student-directed model of instruction.
Teachers may or may not initiate a project but the learner generally takes responsibility for setting learning contracts, research projects, computer mediated-instruction, and distance learning.
Strength is that it encourages student self-reliance, self-regulation, and self-evaluation. Effective teachers can help students set goals, manage their time, monitor their own progress, and reflect on their achievements.
Also called "anchor instruction." students use concrete applications of concept being taught (anchor) to connect to a concrete experience. Hands-on or simulated through computer software, field trips.
-involves lots of student interaction
-methods include: cooperative learning, reciprocal teaching, think/pair/share
Barak Rosenshine--10 basic principles for the development of an explicit teaching session
1.Create a short statement of lesson purpose
2. Provide a short review of previous, prerequisite learning.
3. Present new material in small steps, withe student practice
4. Provide clear, detail explanations and instructions
5. Provide active practice for all students.
6.Ask effective questions, check for understanding and encourage all pupil response
7. Guide students during practice
8. Offer students during practice.
9. Provide Practice for independent work and monitor students.
10. Continue Practice until students are ready to use new info independently and confidently.
Drill and Practice
Offer students practice in the form of a variety of exercises. The students receive immediate feedback on their answers. Typically, Individualized practice and thus not appropriate for group or collaborative work.
A visual presentation showing how something works.
Fill in the blank production. an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words. Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction.
The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory.
Provides a visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word or concept. The framework contains the category, properties, and examples of the word or concept.
Reading for Meaning
-An approach to reading instruction that emphasizes inferential skills and treating texts as sources of meaning
--Reading familiar texts, developing knowledge of sight words (look-say approach)
--Unfamiliar words are comprehended through context clues
--Students are expected to use top-down processing only
--Also known as the whole language approach
Involves a detailed study of a single individual or a small group of individuals.
A process of learning that starts with asking questions and proceeds by seeking the answers to the questions.
A negotiated agreement between the teacher and student that gives the student some freedom in acquiring skills and understanding based on student choice and curriculum.
Multi-level stations where activities designed for specific instructional purposes to provide reinforcement, independent practice, and Discovery.
Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site.
Coming up with as many solutions to a problem as possible in a short period of time with no censoring of ideas.
Cooperative Learning Groups
Cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional techniques in which students work together in small groups to complete an assignment or project. Students are assigned individual roles such as that of a facilitator, recorder, or time-keeper and are given the opportunity to share their knowledge of the topic.
Make your connections, pull it all together and create something new from it all.
The process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge.
Term coined by Bandura on how we learn by imitating others. His research - children will spontaneously imitate the behavior of a model without any obvious reinforcement.
Developing Self-Regulation Skills
Through relationships with adults begin to acquire strategies that enable them to control their behaviors and emotions.
There is a genetic component/predisposition - but self-regulation is malleable; can be taught or improved upon by parents, caretakers or others in their environment.
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level.
Adjusting instruction to meet the needs and learning styles of individuals or groups of learners.
The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy, practice done with frequent and immediate teacher assistance.
Giving advice, direction or information to improve performance.
Working on instructional material with the whole class at the same time. Appropriate when most to all students need to learn specific content or skills at the same time.
Students are in small groups, more attention from
teacher. This can be done in a number of ways but the most common are a) one small group at a time while the rest of the class does work independently b) all students are in a small group and teacher moves between groups.
A cooperative grouping strategy. It involves placing two students together to discuss ideas about a topic. Then, after some time has passed, the teacher asks the students to share with the whole class what they discussed in their groups.
Learners require knowledge soley on through their own efforts. Uses inquiry and critical thinking.
Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn. (More instructor structured with a specific answer or solution.)
Students learning together, drawing on one another's knowledge and skills. (Open ended questions without specific answers.)
An educational practice in which students of diverse abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
An educational practice in which students of similar abilities are placed within the same instructional groups. This practice usually serves as a barrier to the integration of children with disabilities.
The mixing or integration of student of different ages in one classroom or learning setting.
Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
The spontaneous, indirect teaching that occurs when teachers respond to students' questions or when students otherwise demonstrate the need to know something., Unplanned opportunities for learning., points in time, perhaps associated with critical periods, when a child is highly motivated and better able to acquire a particular skill.
Length of time a teacher pauses, after either asking a question or hearing a student's comment, before saying something.
Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Reflective Listening Statements
Reflective listening statements function like mirrors, enabling clients to see themselves in new ways and muster the motivation for change.
1. Repeating or Rephrasing - Listener repeats or substitutes synonyms or phrases; stays close to what the speaker has said
2. Paraphrasing - Listener makes a major restatement in which the speaker's meaning is inferred
3. Reflection of Feeling - Listener emphasizes emotional aspects of
communication through feeling statements - deepest form of listening.
Being willing to try out new ideas.
Examples of Good Body Language
-tone of voice
C-control distractions, L-lean in, O-open posture, S-squarely face the patient, E-good eye contact, R-RELAX,
--eye contact, relatable hand gestures, good posture, smiling, asking relatable questions
Examples of Body Language
No eye contact, multitasking, bad posture, frowning, asking random questions, opening eyes wide, snarling, winking, opening mouth wide
A movement or action of the hands or face, expressive of some idea or emotion.
Cultural Cognitive Constraints
The frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into.
Cultural Behavior Constraints
Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye-or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they are talking--all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture.
Cultural Emotional Constraints
Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation.
Effective Listening Strategies
1. Attending to the Speaker
2. Restating Key Points
3. Asking Questions
4. Interpreting Information
5. Providing Supportive Feedback
6. Being Respectful
Standardized written or performance test of knowledge, aptitude, values, etc. Pre-planned, systematic attempt to ascertain what students have learned.
Occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion.
Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching.
The process of assessing after instruction and using the results for making grading decisions.
Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit or units of instruction or an activity or plan to determine or judge student skills and knowledge or effectiveness of a a plan or activity.
Highly specialized, comprehensive and detailed procedures used to uncover persistent or recurring learning difficulties that require specially prepared diagnostic tests as well as various observational techniques.
A form of assessment designed to provide teachers with information about students' prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity.
A student's writing is assessed according to a pre-determined set of criteria.
A scoring guide is the same as a rubric. It is a tool with a descriptive scale used for measuring and documenting observations that clearly spells out particular characteristics of a behavior.
A scoring guide used in assessments.
Short, concise written observations made by the teacher while students work. The purpose is to observe & record information.
A graphic organizer can be used to help students learn key vocabulary or concepts. Provides an opportunity for students to activate and develop prior knowledge of the feeling words that will be discussed.
An evaluation of your strengths and weaknesses.
Can be used in a group work to assist students in raising their awareness about the quality of their contributions to the group; part of any writing assignment to summarize strengths and weaknesses they see in their writing.
Assessment by students of their classmates' products or performances; usually done informally and during a class session.
A test designed to assess what a person has learned.
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
Tests used to assess the skills an individual already possesses; Also called performance tests.
Norm-referenced tests (or NRTs) compare an examinee's performance to that of other examinees. Standardized examinations such as the SAT are norm-referenced tests. The goal is to rank the set of examinees so that decisions about their opportunity for success (e.g. college entrance) can be made.
Criterion-referenced tests (or CRTs) differ in that each examinee's performance is compared to a pre-defined set of criteria or a standard. The goal with these tests is to determine whether or not the candidate has the demonstrated mastery of a certain skill or set of skills.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
Assessment score based solely on the number or point value of correctly answered items.
A conversion of the student's raw score on a common scale to a numerical scale to compare to other students. (Weighted Score)
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Score is given on the paper as a whole. Assessors balance strengths and weaknesses among the various criteria to arrive at an overall assessment of success or effectiveness of a paper.
The process of teachers' thinking about and analyzing their work to assess its effectiveness.
By conducting incident analysis, suggested by Fred Korthagen, the teacher deeply thinks about one particular teaching or learning event that concerns her, she looks back to her thoughts, feeling, and the events from multiple perspectives, trying to reveal what is the central issue in the situation.
Someone who provides you with nonjudgmental, constructive feedback, which is not part of a formal evaluation, but apart of your ongoing reflection and professional development.
A multi-step strategy to identify and achieve your goals.
Anyone- parents, tax payers, politicians and corporate and community leaders who have an interest in education.
The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, and of assembly.
The right of every individual to seek and receive information from all points of view. Provides free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored.
Due process in education means that fairness should be rendered in all areas, and that the teacher's or student's rights as individuals should under no circumstances be violated.
Mandated Reporting of Child Abuse
Everyone has a duty to report in cases where there is suspected:
Child abuse and/or neglect by a parent, guardian, custodian or caretaker. Reports should be made to the Director of the County Department of Social Services in the county in which the child or disabled adult resides or is found. Reports may be made orally or in writing.
When is a teacher liable?
Tort law is based on the legal premise that individuals are liable for the consequences of their own conduct (or lack
of conduct) when such actions result in injury to others. In a school/classroom setting, tort law is the most common
area of the law that subjects teachers to personal liability.
In most education-related civil lawsuits there are two
main categories of tort liability relevant to the professional educator—Intentional and negligent Torts.
Inappropriate touching, physical discipline, sharing private information (test scores), slander, threatening, isolating, accidents due to negligence, tying down or taping are all situations in which a teacher would be held liable.
Asserts that only the copyright's owner has the right to sell his or her work or to allow someone else to sell it. Protection giving the owner the exclusive tight to reproduce or distribute copies of his or her own work.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Theorists - Praxis PLT 5622/0622
Praxis II 5014/0014 - R/LA
PRAXIS 5014/0014 - Math
PRAXIS 5014/0014 - Social Studies
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