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Biology Chapter 9 Study Guide
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell, controls what goes in and out of the cell
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope, help organize cell division
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA. controls all cellular activity.
original cell before cell division
a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
the cycle of growth and reproduction of a cell
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
cell division in which the nucleus divides
the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells
The first part of interphase: the cell grows and functions. Also known as G1
2nd stage of Interphase. A celll prepares for the division of its nucleus, the cell also takes inventory and makes sure it is ready to continue to mitosis.
The third part of interphase: the cell prepares for interphase. Also known as G2.
cells that have a nucleus
first and longest phase of mitosis,
- the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis,
the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.
function: involved in cell division in animal cells- found in pairs near the nucleus- composed of microtubule rings
two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material
The region that joins two sister chromatids
proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
a clump of cells
cell suicide. programmed cell death
Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions