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threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes


straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell


fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton

Cell membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell, controls what goes in and out of the cell


two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope, help organize cell division


a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA. controls all cellular activity.

Parent cell

original cell before cell division

Daughter cell

a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell

Cell cycle

the cycle of growth and reproduction of a cell


cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases


cell division in which the nucleus divides


the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells

Gap 1

The first part of interphase: the cell grows and functions. Also known as G1


2nd stage of Interphase. A celll prepares for the division of its nucleus, the cell also takes inventory and makes sure it is ready to continue to mitosis.

Gap 2

The third part of interphase: the cell prepares for interphase. Also known as G2.


cells that have a nucleus


first and longest phase of mitosis,
- the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus


second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell


the third phase of mitosis,
the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles


fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

Spindle fibers

protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.


function: involved in cell division in animal cells- found in pairs near the nucleus- composed of microtubule rings


two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material


The region that joins two sister chromatids


proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells


any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division


a clump of cells


cell suicide. programmed cell death

Stem cells

Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions

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