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29 terms

Biology Chapter 9 Study Guide

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Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
Microtubules
straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
Microfilaments
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
Cell membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell, controls what goes in and out of the cell
Centrioles
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope, help organize cell division
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA. controls all cellular activity.
Parent cell
original cell before cell division
Daughter cell
a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
Cell cycle
the cycle of growth and reproduction of a cell
Interphase
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides
Cytokinesis
the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells
Gap 1
The first part of interphase: the cell grows and functions. Also known as G1
Synthesis
2nd stage of Interphase. A celll prepares for the division of its nucleus, the cell also takes inventory and makes sure it is ready to continue to mitosis.
Gap 2
The third part of interphase: the cell prepares for interphase. Also known as G2.
Eukaryotic
cells that have a nucleus
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis,
- the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis,
the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Telophase
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
Spindle fibers
protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.
Centriloes
function: involved in cell division in animal cells- found in pairs near the nucleus- composed of microtubule rings
Chromatids
two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material
Centromere
The region that joins two sister chromatids
Cyclins
proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Cancer
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
Tumor
a clump of cells
Apoptosis
cell suicide. programmed cell death
Stem cells
Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions