230 terms

PSYCH FINAL EXAM

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

TSD (Transient- Situational Disturbance)
Aka P(post) TSD
What is this quote saying?
"Man is a God clothed in rags, he is a master of the universe going about begging a crust of bread. He is a king prostrated before his own servants, a prisoner walled in by his own ignorance. He could be free. He has only to walk out of his self-constructed prison, for none holds him there but himself" -Paul Twitchell *Eckankar Master
-He is holding himself back.
-You are your worst enemy, but only YOU can CHANGE that.
Psychopathology(the course you can take)
the course= abnormal psych; the study of abnormal behavior
Psychopathology
- The inability to BEHAVE socially or appropriate ways
- Maladaptive(sick behavior, wrong behavior) behavior for oneself or society (different in different cultures/societies)
- Is culturally determined
- Different for different cultures
T/F Psychopathology is different for different cultures
True
T/F Psychopathology is learned
True
What are the five models of Psychopathology?
1. Medical Model
2. Dynamic Model
3. Behavior Model
4. Phenomenological Model
5. Ethical Model
Medical Model
- Have this because the 1st psychologists were medical doctors
- still exists/used today
-viewed as symptoms of a disease
- Leads to no sense of responsibility for their behavior
- Mentally ill are not viewed with the same compassion as the physically ill.
T/F Mentally ill are not viewed with the same compassion as the physically ill.
True
Dynamic Model
FREUD
-Results from a conflict between the CONSCIOUS and the UNCONSCIOUS
- Don't Realize
- Developed by Freud
- Don't realize
T/F The dynamic model was developed by Freud
True
T/F The dynamic model Results from a conflict between the CONSCIOUS and the UNCONSCIOUS
True
Behavior model
-Developed by behaviorists, changing
- Results from POSITIVE and NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
- From learning
- Therapy is behavior modification (cognitive behavior modification)
- NO sickness, just INCORRECT LEARNING
- Behaviorists are 1st to say that we are rewarding mental illness
- Nobody is crazy, Nobody is sick
T/F The behavior model Results from POSITIVE and NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
True
Phenomenological Model
- Humanists; (Gestalt People)
- No sickness, Just incorrect Perception
- Here and now
- Conscious mind
- Rogers, Maslow, Perls
- Develop Meaning for life
- You have to do the change
- Take responsibility for your own growth
T/F In the phenomenological model you have to do the change and take responsibility for your own growth.
True
Ethical Model
- Results from IRRESPONSIBLE CHOICES, stresses, problems in living
- Responsible for YOUR BEHAVIOR
- Only you can CHANGE you
T/F In the ethical model you are Responsible for YOUR BEHAVIOR
True
Classification of Psychopathology
- Chief advantage for classification is COMMUNICATION
-makes it easier
Problems with classifications of psychopathology
- It obscures unique features
- It labels: Self Prophecy, believes it, a name
- Self- Prophecy
- Not an explanation
- Not an understanding
- Not a treatment
- Not a cure
- LITTLE AGREEMENT on the system
- Keep changing things, like to condense ex: (diagnosis/classification)
T/F Most Psychopathology is stimulated by stress
True, Neurosis or Psychosis; a bad environment can bring out things.
Major Diagnostic Categories
1. Neurosis
2. Psychosomatic Illness
3. Personality Disorder
4.Psychosis
T/F The most common scheme to classify are similar behavioral or emotional symptoms
True
Diagnosis
- How to classify; uses several different evidence
- Family history
- Biographical Information, Past behavior
- Description of behavior
- Assessments
Neurosis
( four major diagnostic categories)
- Primary characteristic- ANXIETY=fear in the absence of or disproportionate to the danger
- The neurotic behavior AVOIDS or DECREASES the ANXIETY.
- NO GROSS DISTORTION OF REALITY
- Just usually DISTORTION in ONE AREA
- Able to function
- Anything can become a neurosis
T/F everything in psychology is a matter of degree.
True
Psychosomatic illness
-Psychophysiological reaction
- Real physical illnesses caused by psychological reasons (caused by YOUR OWN mind)
- (examples: Panic attacks, predisposition leads to worrying, migraines )
Personality Disorder
- Previously called CHARACTER DISORDERS
- A DOMINANT personality trait that is Maladaptive (abnormal behavior)
- No motivation to change for the person does not think they are doing anything wrong
- (examples: people who struggle with alcoholism, drug use, sexually deviant behavior and people who want to commit suicide)
- Maladaptive from societies views, not the person
- NO ANXIETY
-NO GROSS DISTORTIONS, they believe its "all about me"
- Failure in self- appraisal
-Escapism (trying to escape)
- Misperceptions
- Eating Disorders
T/F someone with a personality disorder is someone who has a dominant personality trait that is maladaptive
True
T/F Someone with a personality disorder believes that they did nothing wrong.
True
Psychosis
*MOST SEVERE
- Gross distortions of reality, thoughts, and emotions
- Delusions= unshakable ideas held no matter what
- Hallucinations= bizarre or distorted perception without corresponding stimuli, no such events are occurring (not to be confused by illusions which are = misperceptions of sensory information)
- Organic disorders= caused by impairment of brain functions; (examples: chronic alcoholism, anorexia, and bulimia.)
- Functional Disorder= Emotional Problem from psychological variables

* to get psychosis has to be both heredity and environment
Delusions
unshakable ideas held no matter what
Hallucinations
bizarre or distorted perception without corresponding stimuli, no such events are occurring
illusions
misperceptions of sensory information
Organic disorders
caused by impairment of brain functions; (examples: chronic alcoholism, anorexia, and bulimia.)
Functional Disorder
Emotional Problem from psychological variables
T/F to get psychosis has to be both heredity and environment
True
T/F Neurosis is to contend with stress
True
T/F Neurosis takes up a lot of energy, it could last 2 years per person before going onto someone else...
true
T/F most people will have 5 neuroses through their lifetime
true
Neurotic Paradox
do it for the temporary gain despite consequences, the conflict would be TSD aka PTSD
T/F in neurosis you are neurotic if the person when prevented from doing it - then: anxiety behavior is rigid and driven, not done relaxed, need being served is insatiable, never given up
True
7 breakdown
1. TSD
2. Anxiety- neurosis
3. Phobias and hypochondrias
4. obsessive-compulsive
5. conversion reactions
6. Dissociative reactions
7. Neurtoic depression
TSD (Transient-Situational Disturbance)
aka P(post)TSD
1. repetitive intense stress of a single trauma(major) - withdraw as if stress all the time
(examples: soldiers in war, abuse)
Anxiety - Neurosis
2. Repressed cause of anxiety, but NOT the anxiety itself; jittery nervous, never know why
Phobias and Hypochondrias
3.
a. Phobias- intense, irrational fears from DISPLACEMENT OF ANXIETY ONTO A MIDLY DANGEROUS SITUATION; can be learned
(examples: water, school, can also be LEARNED FROM A TRAUMA)
b. Hypochondria- preoccupation with one's health, from displaces anxiety; nothing is physically wrong (example: afraid of things like death and being sick)
Obsessive-compulsive
4.
OCD
- Repetitiously thinks (obsessive) or performs (compulsive) a behavior against own wishers.
- it interferes; does not want to be doing it but they feel as if they have to do it or else something will happen
- (Examples: count hear beats, rigid schedule, neat home, or messy home)
- Can be symbolically related to the anxiety, an expression of guilt, fear of punishment
- (example: hand washing for masturbation, murder)

* nothing has to be physically wrong with a person for them to have OCD
Conversion Reaction
5.
- Selectively cutting off certain experiences
- Inactivating part of the body
- (Examples: blindness, paralysis; nothing is physically wrong)

* nothing is physically wrong
* not psychosomatic
*used because the physical illness is more acceptable than mental illness
* fount from Glove Anesthesia
Dissociative Reactions
6.
Block Off Large Parts of Memory
A. Amnesia- Partial or total loss of memory of one's past; retain non-threating aspects of life; to see if physically caused -use hypnosis because they don't remember
B. Fugue- amnesia for past and a new personality and life in the present; fleeing from the situation; when memories return, forget the current life, don't want to deal with the issue so you run
C. Multiple Personality Disorder- Now called DID = Dissociative Identity Disorder; two or more COMPLETE personalities alternating, sides of the conflict are expressed; one is dominated and unaware of the other, new personalities are aware of the dominant; usually resolved by 3rd personality somewhere in between

NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH SPLIT PERSONALITY WHICH IS MORE SEVERE AND PSYCHOSIS AS ITS 1/2 PERSONALITIES NOT ABLE TO FUNCTION.

*now resolved by integration
*the gatekeeper decides which personality comes out
Amnesia
Partial or total loss of memory of one's past; retain non-threating aspects of life; to see if physically caused -use hypnosis because they don't remember
Fugue
amnesia for past and a new personality and life in the present; fleeing from the situation; when memories return, forget the current life, don't want to deal with the issue so you run
Multiple Personality Disorder
Now called DID = Dissociative Identity Disorder; two or more COMPLETE personalities alternating, sides of the conflict are expressed; one is dominated and unaware of the other, new personalities are aware of the dominant; usually resolved by 3rd personality somewhere in between

NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH SPLIT PERSONALITY WHICH IS MORE SEVERE AND PSYCHOSIS AS ITS 1/2 PERSONALITIES NOT ABLE TO FUNCTION.
Phobias
intense, irrational fears from DISPLACEMENT OF ANXIETY ONTO A MIDLY DANGEROUS SITUATION; can be learned
(examples: water, school, can also be LEARNED FROM A TRAUMA)
Hypochondria
preoccupation with one's health, from displaces anxiety; nothing is physically wrong (example: afraid of things like death and being sick)
T/F The gate keeper decides which personality comes out when someone has MPD aka multiple personality disorder.
True
Neurotic Depression
7.
- Excessive depression, 6 months or more
- With anxiety, fatigue, weakness, exhaustion, no sleep, worthless, guilty, no specific cause
- A reasonable level of functioning

*Always depressed
psychosomatic illness
-real physical illness caused by EMOTIONAL FACTORS
- need BOTH PHYSICAL and PSYCHOLOGICAL treatment
- usually involves a single organ system
- comes from stress, conflict, attitudes, conditioning (learning)
- needs relaxation, reconditioning therapy
Personality disorder
- Dominant Personality traits that are maladaptive (messed up) to society
- Not a reaction to stress
- Not a defense mechanism
- Deeply ingrained habit

*really bad habit
* 6 breakdowns
How many breakdowns does personality disorder have?
6
passive agressive personality
aka passive dependent
- Apparent agreement but passive passive resistance through procrastination
- manipulates others
- great dependency needs
- afraid to express anger
- blocks any discussion since they agree
- comes from a faulty development
antisocial personality
-called sociopaths
- also borderline personality (can't hold a job)
- pleasure oriented
- Hedonistic: Pleasure oriented
- Indifferent to others needs
- Exploit others
- Selfish
- Manipulative
-no guilt
- Does not learn from punishment
- Attractive
- Above average intelligence
- See nothing is wrong
- Burn out in the '40s

*always have a backup
*used, tricked, manipulated
What is the difference between sociopaths and borderline personality?
Sociopaths can hold a minimal job; whereas people with borderline cannot.
Dissocial personality
- Holds Values that conflict with society
- Called cultural deviants (ex: hells angels)
- (ex: juvenile delinquents "too good to be true too soon")
Alcoholic
- excessive drinker dependant on alcohol
- interfaces with performance
- in all social classes and groups
health and social problem
long-term use- liver damage, brain damage, TB
- immature, impulsive, low esteem, difficult to treat
- Antabuse- a drug to - nausea
- AA- learn new ways of thinking; have to admit they have a problem
-Rarely seek treatment
- cannot be forced
- escape
What are the stages of an alcoholic?
1st Phase= Pre- alcoholic- social drinking
2nd Phase= Prodromal- drinks in AM, blackouts
3rd Phase= Crucial- loses control, overdrinking
4th Phase= Chronic- Long binges; the anxiety of problems- escape
Antabuse
drug to -nausea from alcohol
AA
learn new ways of thinking; have to admit they have a problem
Drug addicts
- each addict introduces an average of 6 others (people) to drugs
- Decreases tension
- Increases euphoria
- One needs to increases dosages= tolerance
- Withdrawal causes illness
- Treatment is difficult
- Lack of motivation
- Escape
- Methadone is addictive
* classical conditioning is involved, tolerance is based on the environment
T/F methadone is addictive
true
Sexual Deviant
- Any method of obtaining sexual satisfaction that is disapproved by the community, society
( society believe it should be heterosexual sex)
- normal sex activity carried out in extraordinary antisocial conditions- rape, prostitution, promiscuity (too much sex)
- Inappropriate sexual objects
- Rape= not for sex; but for power, revenge, anger, do not learn from punishment, the people deserve it, believe they're teaching a lesson; has nothing to do with the sex
* don't believe they're doing anything wrong
-Sexual dysfunctions include sexual deficiencies of activity or desire
examples= impotence= inability Male
frigidity=lack of enjoyment = female
Rape
not for sex; but for power, revenge, anger, do not learn from punishment, the people deserve it, believe they're teaching a lesson; has nothing to do with the sex
impotence
inability (Male)
frigidity=lack of enjoyment = female
lack of enjoyment (female)
T/F in psychosis you lose conscious control of thoughts feelings and actions
true
T/F You will see bizarre behavior coming from someone who has psychosis
true
T/F Psychosis is usually chronic, most of life, and comes and goes
true
T/F suicide occurs during holidays, pleasant weather and the first day of spring
true
T/F 3 times as many women try to commit suicide
3 times as many men succeed in committing suicide
True
Suicide rate among professional groups
1. Dentists
2. Psychologists/Psucharatrists
3. Dr. and nurses
4. financial advisiors
5. lawyers
Affective disorders (Both genetic and environmental)
a. Manic- Depression =Bipolar
Depression- alternating severe depression and deep optimism, hyperactive
10-15%
risk of suicide during switchover
b. Unipolar depression- only depression fantasies, not nearly enough to commit suicide

- spontaneous remission even without treatment - 2years
- self- limiting
- Treatment decreases suffering

*drugs/medication to take that can help
T/F 85-90% of people have unipolar depression
True
involutional melancholia
*DOES NOT BELONG WITH UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION
- depression associated with aging, deterioration, limited usefulness
- Suicide high
- Women 45- 60 years
- Men 50- 65years
- No spontaneous recovery
- Need medication and treatment

*separate from OCD and Hoarding
Schizophrenia
- Disturbances in thought and emotion, withdrawal from interpersonal relations, flattened emotions or extreme emotions or inappropriate emotions
- Depersonalization-no personal identity
- Inner fantasizes

*person is psychotic but NOT depressed
*have diff biochem
Reactive Schizophrenia
sudden onset of symptoms, prognosis is good
process schizophrenia
slow onset of symptoms, prognosis is poorer
5 subtypes of schizophrenia
1. Simple (off)
2. Paranoid "someones after me"
3. Catatonic
4. Hebrephrenic
5. Undifferentiated

*can have more than one subtype
Diathesis-stress theory
caused by both genetic and environment; must have BOTH components
Double Blind
PARADOX, conflict situation, contradictory words and actions, double messages; child withdraws, no relationships
(Examples: I love you, don't hug me)

Mixed messages, hereditary, predispositions, could bring out schizophrenia.
Psychotherapy
- a corrective experience leading a person to hopefully in a socially appropriate and adaptive way. DIF in DIF Cultures
- Close friends do a lot of it but are not objective, not trained
- Prevention would be better
- People seek therapy because they are uncomfortable
- Dystonic= Inconsistent self-concept and behavior; need and want change
- Syntonic= consistent, ideal self- concept and behavior, little reason to change
Syntonic
consistent, ideal self- concept and behavior, little reason to change
Dystonic
Inconsistent self-concept and behavior; need and want change
insight-oriented therapy
- Directed at the underlying cause, when resolved alleviates symptoms
- Problems come from the conflict between conscious and unconscious
- Become aware of unconscious=insight=self-knowledge; divided into:
1. Repressed memories of the past...Birth
2. Denied aspects of the present- new... Lasts 3-5 years
Psychoanalysis (Freud)
-need insight into the cause and to also experience the emotion associated with the original memory; remember the anxiety thoughts (you have to experience it psychologically)

- On a couch - no external stimuli
-used hypnosis, free association(Freud created)= say anything that comes into your mind
- Resistant- blocking- repressed area
- symptoms=slips of the tongue, late, forgetting an appointment
- used dream analysis= understand the latent content from the manifest content of the dream through analysis of it
-Analysis=Interpret, explain the unconscious meaning
-if meaning to give too soon - anxiety and then repression must lead a client slowly to arrive at their own interpretations, a single interpretation is not enough
- working through= repeated interpretations are required
- Transference= allows emotional to be acted out or replaced emotionally and temporarily; it has to be resolved with the therapist
- Counter- transference=therapist to the client, not good to do at all, the therapist acting out their emotions to you
free association(Freud created)
say anything that comes into your mind
dream analysis
= understand the latent content from the manifest content of the dream through analysis of it
Analysis
Interpret, explain the unconscious meaning
Transference
allows emotional to be acted out or replaced emotionally and temporarily; it has to be resolved with the therapist
Counter-transference
therapist to the client, not good to do at all, the therapist acting out their emotions to you
existential therapy
Rollo May, here and now, ego, rational, face to face, 1940's
client-centered therapy Carl Rogers
1950's
- helps clients accept themselves in the now
- experiences feelings fully, no denial
- therapist only responds to feelings statements of clients, does not direct the conversation
- make feelings and self-concept to be consistent
accepting environment, self- exploration, the real relationship in therapy, no role-playing
- one on one relationship
- the therapist is empathetic, understanding, unconditional, positive regard
What are the stages of development of integration?
1. Rigidity and remoteness
2. Feelings not of the present admitted
3. present feelings admitted
Gestalt Therapy (Fritz Perls)
FRITZ PERLS
*similar to Maslow and carl Rodgers

- look at entirely of experience
-not why, but what is being felt, hoe behaviors decrease self-awareness
- accept responsibility for your behavior *look at the entire experience
- practical as group therapy
- looks at total behavior
Transactional Analysis = TA
ERIC BERNE

-Most Widely used; fastest growing
-Transactions between people, express parent, child or adult
- 9 possibilities between 2 people
*ideal is adult to adult
Non-Insight- oriented therapies = BEHAVIOR THERAPY
BEHAVIOR THERAPY

-works on symptoms (behavior), not causes
- in the now
- uses learning and conditioning
- unconscious is irrelevant
conditioning therapies -classical conditional
classical conditional
- used in enuresis= night time bed wetting
-75-90% effective
- some success in homosexuality- too generalized
(having people "hook up" with each other to train the brain to like a certain sex)
conditioning therapies- instrumental conditioning
- shaping for a short attention span
- good for psychopathology, withdrawn children and schizophrenics
-called token economics in hospital
(an example of token economics is mental hospitals, prisons, schools)
conditioning therapies- Punishment
2 conditions
if the (1)desired behavior never occurs, or (2)if the maladaptive behavior is reinforcing itself --> can't use the reward.
- example: alcoholics to relearn drinking pattern
- uses shock
Conditioning therapies- Biofeedback
- teach people to gain control over their psychological responses to stress
- a signal and then a different response, a trigger (relaxing)
- eliminates anxiety responses
- used in psychosomatic illness, migraines, asthma, arthritis, epilepsy
* recognize what brings out your anxiety
behavior modification
- does not have the drawbacks of the conditioning therapies
- treatment does not have to be administrated at exactly the time and place of the behavior is occurring
- patient imagines behavior and consequences, learning is then applied (does not have to actually be doing it )
- treats the behavior
systematic desensitization
JOSEPH WOLPE

- called reciprocal inhibition; associate an opposite response to the anxiety--> relaxation, assertiveness, that then decreases anxiety to the stimulus
- do concentrate relaxation training
- it is still anxiety, then do more relaxation
- do entire hierarchy list of fears until no fear at all
- used on test anxiety, large group speaking, phobias

(example of reciprocal inhibition: stress= relax
insecure= confidence)
covert sensitization
-punishment training therapy by imagination
- eliminate undesired behavior
-imagine undesired consequences
- used to prevent drinking altogether
cognitive behavioral modification
-behavior modification by changing cognitions, attitudes, and thoughts
Modeling
- observes behaviors
-you can learn anything this way

ALBERT BANDURA
Rational Emotive Therapy
Albert ELLIS

- through talking the therapist leads the client to see the irrational nature of their self-statements (misperceptions)
- to view the world more appropriately
- "shoulds" and "must" statements cannot be used
-used guided fantasy and relaxation
Misconception therapy
VICTOR ROMY

- Changing one's mistaken ideas or misconceptions to be more accurate
- uses self-examination, explanation, self-demonstration, repeated review
(example: misconception-->anxiety becomes insanity )
New ways of behavior change - EST
EST= Forum today 60's * they dont tell you
- Max Erhard, 2 weekends, expensive
- borrows from all great philosophies, religions, and, psychologies
- Large groups of people
- Experimental exercises in high-stress situations, negative, wanted you to drop your defenses quicker

* people running it were only trained in EST, they were not therapists
New ways of behavior change - Structural integration
structural integration=rolfing
- I. Rold, 10- 1.hr sessions
- Physical and emotional hurts get stored up in the body
- hard and painful physical massage to release it, walk away black & blue, diff today, doesn't hurt you
New ways of behavior change -Bioenergetics
- A. Lowen
- Breathing exercises and do it yourself muscle manipulation
- locate energy blockage and release them, yielding energy
New ways of behavior change - Primal therapy
- Feelings as a child were cut of giving unreal self
- the primal pain still exists and is expressed in neurotic symptom
- re-experience the pain
- Primal scream= release of primal pain that was stored up
Primal scream
release of primal pain that was stored up
group approaches
- since the 1940s, more EFFICIENT, less expensive, more people
- size can be 3-20
- best in size 8-10
-therapy is expensive
Benefits
- Others have similar problems
- get feedback from others
- pool all experiences
- new solutions
- help others
- safe and accepting environment
sensitivity training
=T-Group= Training group
- Interpersonal warmth and honesty
-self-disclosure
- specific problem areas
-feedback from others
- 1940
- went to T-group with specific problem areas
Encounter group
- Become sensitive to other's feelings
- here and now activities
-feedback
- no masks
- open and honest communication
- 3hrs 1x a week
T/F in sensitive training you receive feedback from others and go to the group with specific problem areas
true
T/F in encounter groups you are sensitive to others and participate in here and now activities
true
T/F both in sensitive training and encounter group; feedback is involved
true
Marathon group
- an encounter group that meets for many consecutive hours- a weekend... 48 hrs
- High group pressure for openness
- self-disclosure
- low defenses
-more difficult to play roles
Family therapy
- work with the whole family
- determine what each member sees as the problem and what each hopes to achieve
- family rules uncovered
- improve communication, empathy
- resolve conflict
Psychodrama
- role playing to work through problems
T/F In general the intensity of emotion experiences in groups requires a very experienced leader
True
T/F In general One has to ethical have the welfare of the client before the therapist's welfare
true
T/F, In general, the group needs to be lead and not allowed to run on its own
true
T/F, in general, you should find out what each therapy is about and see if it is for you
true
biological therapies - chemotherapy(not for cancer) ( Drug therapy)
4 categories
1. sedatives- lover anxiety and tension, high sleep and drowsiness, cant function (ex: barbiturates)
2. Tranquilizers- lowers anxiety without sleep (addictive)
3. Antidepressants- lowers depression; mood elevator (addictive)
4. Anti-psychotic- lower turmoil and symptoms, thoughts can still be psychotic
T/F In general all drugs do not cure only quiet/subdue
true
T/F In general drugs quit symptoms
true
T/F in general drugs cover up and cover over
true
T/F In general, all drugs have to be voluntarily taken to work
true
T/F in general most drugs have bad side affects
true
Frontal Lobotomy
-less popular
- no longer used
- surgery in the brain-cutting the right an left hemisphere connection
- irreversible brain damage
- called psychosurgery
- thoughts can still be violent but cannot act on them, made passive
ECT= Electroconvulsive Therapy= Shock Therapy
- for severe depression
- was used for learning disabilities
- was NOT known for the side effects
- used after chemo
- destroy brain cells
- shock across both temples
- have to have convulsions and go unconscious
- can't remember it
- several treatments
- ONLY across RIGHT TEMPLE, just as effective and has fewer side effects
-violent
-does not lower future depressions
hospitalizations
-1/4 million people admitted to mental hospitals(250,000)
- as many for emotional problems as all the physical problems added up together
- average length= 2 weeks
- 1 year -->1/5
- 50% of people return again
- 70 % of people are involuntarily committed by the court
- No rights
- an aid to therapy, not therapy itself
Community mental health
- treat in the community
- prevention
- lower hospitalization
-treat the community
- a wide range of services
-short-term hospitals
-out-patient care
-24 hr emergency
Primary service
-eliminated basic causes of a problem- poverty, diseases, discrimination
-very important
-very slow
-little done in this area
-SOCIAL CHANGE
Secondary services
-focus on existing problems
- therapy, crisis intervention, suicide prevention
- halfway houses
Teritary services
- after effects of a problem
Hello-goodbye effect
- the problem which shades the client's evolution of the therapy
- when the client says HELLO to the therapist at the beginning, he presents himself as unhappy and troubled, at the end of therapy, GOODBYE effect occurs when the client tries to present himself as improved.
-this is to lower conflict over wasting time and money to express appreciation for the therapist effort
- Hello-goodbye effect is not Real imp. FAKE
Improvements in general
-less emphasis on diagnostic classification
- identity problems
- person behavior and issues
-NEED to fit into a category
- Be trained in a variety of techniques, not just one, be eclectic
- mix many methods for more effect
- more preventive care
- more short-term and quicker methods
social psychology
the study of the effect on individual behavior of the real or imagined behavior of others
T/F Human beings are social animals
True
T/F Everything is affected by social experience
true
T/F we are largely what others have told us taught us and to expect of us
true
T/F we are affected verbally and non verbally
true
Feral children
show how much we are affected by and need social contacts of our species; major retardation w/o it, they are children raised in the wild, always behind
T/F social contact is a way we learn
True
What are the two ares of social psychology?
(1)Attitude research and (2)effect of group on the individual
Attitude Research
Most popular topic
-prejudice (most pop. topic)
-interpersonal attraction-friendship and romance (most people are interested in)
Attitude
3 components, concepts, something you learned or have created
1. beliefs or knowledge = the COGNITIVE component
2. Feeling = The EMOTIONAL- MOTIVATIONAL component
3. tendencies to act in a particular way= PERFORMANCE component
T/F attitudes are a concept
true
T/F attitudes are a way to respond to all members of a given class or category
true
T/F attitudes are learned directly or indirectly
true
T/F attitudes are important basis for consistency
true
T/F attitudes are a guide to future behavior
true
T/F in social psych the most imp. think is consistency
true
organization of attitudes
-organized according to the principle of consistency= the attitudes held by an individual are mutually supportive and do not conflict with one another; also to segregate like objects from dislike objects, includes people
- If one is consistent, then change is difficult
- if there is inconsistency, then one is uncomfortable and it must be resolved by a change

*organized in your head
principle of consistency
the attitudes held by an individual are mutually supportive and do not conflict with one another; also to segregate like objects from dislike objects, includes people

Principle of consistency

1) objects & people
2) thoughts
balance theory- Fritz heider
FRITZ HEIDER

- People and objects perceived as belonging together will have the same dynamic quality- they will all be liked or disliked
- Liked objects will not be associated with disliked objects
- we tend towards BALANCE
- IN BALANCE IS UNCOMFORTABLE
(example: friends with a different attiture-> drop a friend or change attitude; does this because he or she would not be able to live with the INCONSISTENCY)
dissonance
inconsistency, uncomfortable
cognitive dissonance theory Eeon Festinger
EEON FESTINGER

- Deals with cognitions or mental elements, ideas
-CONSONANCE is AGREEMENT
- DISSONANCE is UNCOMFORTABLE
- (example: pay a lot for something and it breaks)
- we try to reduce dissonance/inconsistency
- minimal, external pressure is most effective for lasting change
- we will even lie to ourselves to reduce dissonance
T/F Change you are forced to make you don't believe. real change has to come from a choice
true
T/F truth is 2nd consistency is 1st
true
Change
easy to change
-imbalance
-dissonance
-inconsistency
-uncomfortable
-don't want to have
No change
Hard to change
-balance
-consonance
-consistency
-comfortable
-want to have
Prejudice
-one of the major attitudes studied
-it is prejudgement
- Usually intergroup in character
- usually highly emotional
- usually negative
- develops at an early stage (learned... from whoever raised you)
- learned, indirectly from others with no contact with that group
- very difficult to change (because learned it so young)
Factors that contribute to being Prejudice
a) belief is held steadfast despite contradictory evidence
b) person must be benefiting from it
C) it defends oneself against own inner insecurities and conflict
d) authoritarian personality only two choices ( yes or no; black or while personality)
e) a matter of conformity
f) need for social approval
g) people who generalize
h) people who stereotype/ categorize
I) belief Disparity: people who judge
T/F when it's about people = prejudice; and when it's about objects = bias
true
Conflict and Hostility
- the only way to get rid of those it to have the two people or the two groups have to work together directly, needing each other to solve the problem- cooperation towards ONE GOAL
T/F the major source of prejudice is the world
true
T/F segregation is reflected in all areas
true
T/F parents are prejudiced because of ASSUMED differences in value
true
T/F assumption of belief disparity is MAJOR in prejudice--> DIFFERENCE IS NOT AS GOOD
true
T/F stereotypical beliefs-> prejudice
true
stereotypes
False generalizations, usually negative, inadequate
T/F narrow-minded vision is involved in institutional prejudice
true
T/F prejudiced people want their children to be prejudiced because they think that they are correct
true
T/F conformity is a major factor in prejudice
true
Attitude change
a process whereby the source communicates a message to the recipient, thus persuading the individual to a new point of view
T/F.... The basic process in attitude change is THE PRINCIPLE OF COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY; the source introduces INCONSISTENCY with a new point of view; if the recipient is persuaded that the new position is true then a change in attitude is needed to achieve consistency
true
Methods to bring about change
1. Persuasion (nicer, believer what their saying)
2. Propaganda (usually lying is involved, will say anything to get you to change)
T/F there will be more attitude change if the source is an expert.
true
T/F there will be more attitude change if the source is of high status and prestige
true
T/F there will be more attitude change if change is a matter of choice, not being forced upon
true
T/F the consequences of not changing one's attitudes arouse moderate (not high or low) level of fear; repress neg thoughts
true
Interpersonal Attraction
- our social relations are guided by our attitudes
-we must have CONSISTENCY, EVEN IF IT IS WRONG (consistency over truth)
- we believe we can predict future behavior of others
- physical beauty influences our judgment of personality
- attractive people are believed to have more positive traits
-Physical attraction is very important and superficial (we change as we age!!)
- emphasis on physical is reinforced by society
(example: "beauty is in the eye of the beholder")
attribution theory
how we view others and how we see ourselves

-Depends on the intentions (motives) we ascribe (give) to others and ourselves.
- we are not as objective as we'd like to believe we are
- we attribute so that we can:
a) understand them or ourselves and
b) predict future behavior

- Attributes are NOT VISIBLE; they are CONCEPTS (mental concepts) creates by US, they are instant judgments; they are based on sparse information; do not give equal weight to all information focus on the unususal (subjective)
T/F the attribution theory is how we view others and how we see ourselves
True
T/F Attributes are inferences and are not checked out with that person as truth or not; we are perceiving what is true or not
True
T/F Attributes are create in our own minds
true
T/F Attributes can be.....

a) External is to the situation
or
b) internal is to the person
True

Example: Door slams
external: I did not see them
internal : I am not a good person in the morning anyway
T/F we choose which we make based on whether we are positive or negative thinkers.
true
T/F We are unaware of even doing it; or based on what
true
T/F we are NOT accurate
true
T/F we choose external or internal generally based on benefits of the doubt and who it is.
True
T/F if it is OURSELVES and it is a GOOD THING, than it is INTERNAL
true
T/F if it is OURSELVES and it is a BAD THING, than it is EXTERNAL
true
T/F If it is a STRANGER and it is a GOOD THING than it is EXTERNAL
true
T/F if it is a STRANGER and it is a BAD THING than it is INTERNAL
true
T/F BEST FRIENDS would be STRANGERS if it was AGAINST US
true
T/F BEST FRIENDS would be the SAME as ourselves
true
T/F We always come first and get the benefit of the doubt (*prejudicial towards ourselves)
True
Variables affect liking - in friendship
a. physical proximity: children do this
b. the frequency of interaction
c. Perceived similarity: assume that because they look alike that they are good friends for each other
d. Complementary needs: go for opposites (6-12 yr olds)
e:*Mutual benefits: what we SHOULD go for
Variables affect liking - In marriage
a. Physical attraction
b. similarity: a similar relationship will have more quantity, last longer, good, fight less
c. complementary satisfaction: shorter time, but quality, more growth in opposite relationship
d. mutual satisfaction
Variables for successful partnership
-selfless,communication,acceptance,trust,honestey,etc.
social exchange theory
- an encounter yields some satisfaction=reward and some sacrifice=cost
-encounter measure those against each other
-more reward and less cost last longer
- more cost and less reward last shorter
- cost and reward are not based on an absolute level, but on a comparison level which is based on:
-(no good)what you feel you deserve; came from when you were children
-(no good)what you had before; every relationship gets a little bit better
-(Good)mutual benefits=concept of equity which affects survival; keeps a relationship alive
individual within group
-others just being present can affect your response forcefully=social interference which can be either (social influence)
1. Facilitative (helpful)
or
2. Inhibitory
-Includes presence without verbal also
- examples of faciltory- simple tasks already learned tasks, well- learned tasks
- examples of inhibitory- new skills, creative skills, amount of work produced is less, shyness
Conformity
- influence of others is greater when pressure is put on to conform
- people feel uncomfortable when they are alone in their actions
- Solomon Asch: conformity is COMPLEX; represents mostly a need for social approval(because you are then going to STAND OUT); no one wants to disagree publically; Asch's stick experiment and variations
Stick experiment Solomon Asch
10 subjects
9 people
the people begin to CONFORM to each other as the experiment goes on
Stanley Milgram
- People respond readily to the demands of authority even more so; frightening results; (examples-cults)
- raises the question of responsibility for the behavior
- will even harm another to follow the authority
- Milgram's famous authority experiment. *73% of people (BROKE IT DOWN INTO GENDER)would hurt another person so they made it unethical; for 35 years no one could study this; when those years were up they went right back to it.
Person Situation Interaction
- A person's behavior is a function of:
1. What the individual brings to the situation, personal predisposition (who you are)
2. The characteristic of the situation
- Both account for the results and allow for variability within the same person you want to put more of you in because it gives you more power, control, and higher morals. ​
Group Performance and organization
In solving some problems a group is more effective than an individual, and in other problems group performance is lower.
Group problem solving
In general-a group-more solutions, better solutions, less creative, more time takes, superior on moderate problems, inferior to difficult problems, inferior on problems having many steps for the solution
Brain storming
- Developed to encounter creative(lack of creativity) inhibition in groups; answers and from whom given without evaluation and without knowledge, evaluations are given at the end for the suggestion, not the person; it is still inferior to individuals since groups tend to get stuck in one line of thinking *an individual alone will be more creative than brainstorming
group polarization J. Stoner
J. STONER
- the group tends to go more to the extremes no matter what it is
- less risky, more generous, etc.
- due to responsibility being shared
group thinking I. Janis
I. JANIS
- occurs in highly cohesive(close) groups(small close groups)
- occurs when UNANIMOUS decisions are needed
- characteristics - invulnerability, extensive rationalization, moral self- righteousness, simplistic stereotype descriptions of the opposition, strong conformity pressure ju​ry's, gov, going to war....*forcing others to agree
Conflict
- the only way to decrease get rid of hostility between two r more is to have them have to cooperate together directly towards the same goal, Each needs to accomplish the goal.
- cooperation is SUCCESS. Divide and conquer is DEFEAT.
-when forced with a threat, more personal gain without a weapon.
Helping victims of accident crimes
- help is least likely with more possible helpers than with one ... *bystander effect ... do what YOU BELIEVE IS RIGHT
- the decision to help is affected by the social environment
Social crowding
-more in the cities, more population density, more HUMAN PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
- household crowding is positive --> more support
- city crowding is negative- reacting to in Stanley Milgram information overload, more protective devices, more noninvolvement with others, respect privacy, more tolerance for diversity, more distrust, less interaction
Prisions
- the most aversive aspect of prison life is the loss of privacy
Stanford Prison Study
Implications found that the relative ease with which sadistic behavior could be elicited from normal, non- sadistic people and the extent of the emotional disturbance that emerged from very emotionally stable people; this study had to be stopped halfway before completion; the subjects had to be debriefed; showed the effect of the situation on the person and his reaction...power can corrupt if you let i​t
Stockholm Syndrome- Implications
- Hostages become aligned with their captors, hostages side w/ their captors
- To cope with the extraordinary stress placed in an infantile dependent position
- feel love for being cared for and not killed - abused children...*Patty Hurst