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47 terms

Chemistry chapter 5

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Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of ___ that behaves like an ___ as it travels through space.
Energy, wave
___ is one type of electromagnetic radiation.
Light
All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and ___
Speed
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is called an ___
Wavelength
The height of the wave from the origin to the crest or from the origin to the trough is the ___
Amplitude
___ is the number of waves that pass a given point in one second.
Frequency
The Si unit for frquency is the ___, which is the equivalent of one wave per second.
Hertz
An __ is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.
Quantum
According to Plank's theory, for a given frequency, v, matter can emit or absorb energy only in ____ ____ ____ __ __.
Whole number multiples of hv
The ____ is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
Photoelectric effect
Which equation would you choose to calculate the energy of a photon?
Ephoton=hv
T or F - Like the visible spectrum, an atomic emission spectrum is a continuous range of colors.
False
T or F - Each element has a unique emission spectrum.
True
T or F - A flame test can be used to identify the presence of certain elements in a compound.
True
T or F - The fact that only certain colors appear in an element's atomic emission spectrum indicates that only certain frequencies of light are emitted.
True
T or F - Atomic emission spectra can be explained by the wave model of light.
False
T or F - The neon atoms in a neon sign emit their characteristic color of light as they absorb energy.
True
T or F - When an atom emits light, photons having certain specific energies are being emitted.
True
The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its ___
Ground state
Bohr's model of the atom predicted the ___ of the lines in hydrogen's atomic emission spectrum.
Frequencies
According to Bohr's atomic model, the smaller an electron's orbit, the ____ the atom's energy level.
Lower
According to Bohr's atomic model, the larger an electron's orbit, the ____ the atom's energy level.
Higher
Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its ____ moves to a higher-energy orbit.
Electron
According to Boh'rs atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to the difference between the ____ ___ associated with the two orbits it transitions between.
Energy levels
Bohr's atomic model failed to explain the ____ of elements other than hydrogen.
Atomic emission spectrum
The _____ ____ model of the atom that treats electrons as waves.
Quantum mechanical model
______ ____ ____states that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
A 3-D region around the nucleus representing the probability of finding an electron.
Atomic orbital
____ ____ ____ originally applied to the hydrogen atom, it led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Schrodinger wave equation
Atomic orbitals (do, do not) have an exactly defined size.
Do not
Each orbital may contain at most (two, four) electrons.
Two
All s orbitals are (Spherically shaped, dumbbell shaped)
Spherically shaped
A principal energy level has (n, n^2) energy sublevels.
N
The maximum number of (Electrons, orbitals) related to each principal energy level equals 2n^2
Electrons
There are (three, five) equal energy p orbitals.
Three
Hydrogen's principal energy level 2 consists of (2s & 3s, 2s & 2p) orbitals.
2s & 2p
Hydrogen's principal energy level 3 consists of (nine, three) orbitals.
Nine
The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atom's ____
Electron configuration
Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement that gives the atom the ____ possible energy.
Lowest
This arrangement of electrons is the most ____ arrangement and is called the atom's ________
Stable, ground - state electron configuration
The __________ states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbit available.
Aufbau principle
The ______ _____ ____states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite ____.
Pauli exclusion principle, spins
_____ states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each degenerate orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.
Hund's rule
The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals are called ____
Valence electrons
In an electron dot structure, the element's symbol represents the ____
Atom's nucleus and inner-level electrons
How many valence electrons does a chlorine atom have if its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s^2 3p^5
7
Which electrons are represented by dots in an electron- dot structure?
Valence electrons