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M3 - Praxis 5622 PLT - Learning Theory and Development
Learning Theory and Development - Praxis 5622 PLT
Terms in this set (66)
Responding to a new object or event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one.
Mentorship in which a learner works intensively with an experienced adult to learn how to perform complex new skills.
Responding to and possibly interpreting a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme.
Focusing of mental processes on particular stimuli.
Approach to instruction similar to one students might encounter in the outside world.
Theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus response relationships. Motivation is often the result of deficit based drives. Adherents to this perspective are called behaviorists.
Taxonomy of six cognitive processes, varying in complexity, that lessons might be designed to foster.
Form of learning in which a new, involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented at the same time.
Demonstrating how to think about as well as how to do a task.
Community of learners
Class in which teacher and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn.
Process of checking oneself to be sure one understands and remembers newly acquired information.
Diagram of concepts and their interrelationships; used to enhance learning and memory of a topic.
Revision of one's understanding of a topic in response to new information.
Concrete operations stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, in which adult like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.
Conditioned response, or CR
Response that begins to be elicited by a particular, or conditioned, stimulus through classical conditioning.
Conditioned stimuli, or CS
Stimulus that begins to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning.
Realization that if nothing is added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement.
Theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, a body of knowledge from their experiences, knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality. Adherents to this perspective are called constructivists.
Knowledge related to, what is. That is, to the nature of how things are, were, or will be.
Appearance of a new, developmentally more advanced behavior.
Inability to explain new events with existing schemes; tends to be accompanied by a sense of discomfort.
Cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
Changing the format of information being stored in memory in order to remember it more easily.
State of being able to explain new events with existing schemes.
Formal operations stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, in which logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects, and more sophisticated scientific and mathematical reasoning processes emerge.
A child's performance, with guidance and support, of an activity in the adult world.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how people, as individuals, construct meaning from the events around them.
Information processing theory
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how learners mentally think about, or process, new information and events and how such processes change with development.
Component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time.
Unfolding of genetically controlled changes as a child develops.
Cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know.
Knowledge and beliefs about one's own cognitive processes, as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory.
Memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember a specific piece of information.
Demonstrating a behavior for another; also, observing and imitating another's behavior.
Form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by reinforcement.
Overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, in which children can think about objects beyond their immediate view but do not yet reason in logical, adult like ways.
Prior knowledge activation
Process of reminding learners of things they have already learned relative to a new topic.
Knowledge concerning how to do something. For example, a skill.
Consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows.
Mutual cause and effect relationships among environment, behavior, and personal variables as these three factors influence learning and development.
Cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it.
Act of following a response with a reinforcer.
Process of "finding" information previously stored in memory.
Learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it.
Support mechanism that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her zone of proximal development.
General understanding of what an object or event is typically like.
In Piaget's theory, organized group of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment.
Knowledge of the meanings of words and word combinations.
Genetically determined age range during which a certain aspect of a child's development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, in which schemes are based largely on behaviors and perceptions.
Component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief time, perhaps one to two seconds.
Bruner's design for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time.
Situated learning and cognition
Knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited if any use in other contexts.
Social learning theory
Theoretical perspective in which learning by observing others is the focus of study. Initially, this perspective focused largely on stimulus response relationships. More recently, it has come to incorporate cognitive processes as well, hence its alternative name is social cognitive theory.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on people's collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.
Theory that depicts development as a series of relatively discrete periods or stages.
Phenomenon in which something a person has learned at one time affects how the person learns or performs in a later situation.
Unconditioned response, or UCR
Response that is elicited by a particular, or unconditioned, stimulus without prior learning.
Unconditioned stimulus, or UCS
Stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning.
Overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes.
Phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another person is observed being punished for that response.
Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another person is observed being reinforced for that response.
Process of forming mental pictures of objects or ideas.
Component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information.
Zone of proximal development, or ZPD
Range of tasks that a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently.
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