Terms in this set (14)
Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is strengthened (happens more often) because an existing negative stimulus is removed. Punishment occurs when a behavior is weakened (happens less often) because the behavior's consequence is either a new aversive stimulus (positive punishment) or an existing positive stimulus being removed (negative punishment).
Using positive reinforcement, you would provide the child with a positive reinforce (reward) after cleaning the room. Note: It would probably also important to use shaping here (the method of successive approximations) to guide the child toward the desired behavior of fully cleaning the room. To use negative punishment, you would remove an existing privilege from the child (like placing the child in "time out") if he or she did not clean the room. This technique would be less effective as a sole implement, because punishment only teaches what not to do, and does not teach the desired behavior (cleaning the room).
If a toddler somehow received an electric shock after touching an electrical outlet, then the toddler may develop a classically conditioned fear to the outlet. The US is the electric shock, which naturally elicits the UR of being fearful of the electric shock. The NS is the outlet, which is paired with the US. After acquisition (enough pairing of the shock and the outlet), the NS has now become the CS: the outlet. The new CR is being fearful of the outlet.