Psych Quiz Module 24-27

What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
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Using positive reinforcement, you would provide the child with a positive reinforce (reward) after cleaning the room. Note: It would probably also important to use shaping here (the method of successive approximations) to guide the child toward the desired behavior of fully cleaning the room. To use negative punishment, you would remove an existing privilege from the child (like placing the child in "time out") if he or she did not clean the room. This technique would be less effective as a sole implement, because punishment only teaches what not to do, and does not teach the desired behavior (cleaning the room).
If a toddler somehow received an electric shock after touching an electrical outlet, then the toddler may develop a classically conditioned fear to the outlet. The US is the electric shock, which naturally elicits the UR of being fearful of the electric shock. The NS is the outlet, which is paired with the US. After acquisition (enough pairing of the shock and the outlet), the NS has now become the CS: the outlet. The new CR is being fearful of the outlet.
Using proper psychological terminology, what is the difference between an unconditioned response and a conditioned response? Between a neutral stimulus and a conditioned stimulus?An unconditioned response is a natural reaction to a stimulus, while a conditioned response is a similar reaction, but now in response to some initially neutral stimulus. A stimulus is neutral before conditioning, because it does not normally produce a response. This stimulus becomes conditioned after being repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus.What would happen if your hand accidently touched a lit candle? Would this be a conditioned or an unconditioned response, and why?If your hand touched a lit candle, you would probably react by quickly retracting your hand. This would be an unconditioned (unlearned) response, because that is a person's natural reaction to a pain stimulus.If a bell is rung every time your hand was burnt by the candle, and then the bell is rung by itself, what do you expect will happen? Why type of response is this? What kind of stimulus (US, CS, NS) is the bell, and why?After this acquisition, you might retract your hand in response to the bell. This is a conditioned response, reacting to the bell, which is now a conditioned stimulus (although the bell was initially a neutral stimulus).Refer to your answer for #1 on this worksheet. How might the toddler possibly display generalization and discrimination in this example of learning? How would the toddler's learning be extinguished? How might higher-order conditioning play a role in this situation?The toddler might display generalization if she or he exhibited a fear response to objects that closely resembled electrical outlets. Discrimination would be displayed if/when the toddler showed fear only in response to outlets, and not to other stimuli. The toddler's learning would be extinguished if he or she continually interacted with outlets without being shocked, which would eventually cause the fear response to be diminished. Higher-order conditioning could play a role if some new neutral stimulus was associated (paired) with the already-established conditioned stimulus. If, for example, some new stimulus (like a bell) was presented with the outlet, then the toddler may develop a fear response to the bell.