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Chapter 11: The Dynamic Planet
Terms in this set (59)
The system internal to Earth, driven by radioactive heat derived from sources within the planet. Earth 's surface responds by moving, warping, breaking, mountain building and sometimes in dramatic episodes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, constructing the crust.
involves external processes that set into motion air, water, and ice, all powered by solar energy-this is the fluid realm of Earth's environment.
Geologic time scale
is a summary timeline of all Earth history. It reflects currently accepted names of time intervals for each segment of Earth's history, from vast eons through briefer eras, periods, and epochs.
An assumption that physical processes active in the environment today are operating at the same pace and intensity that has characterized them throughout geological time; proposed by Hutton and Lyell. They said, "present is the key to the past"
• Seismic waves
The shock wave sent through the planet by an earthquake or underground nuclear test. Transmission varies according to temperature and the density of various layers within the planet; provides indirect diagnostic evidence of earth's internal structure. Cooler areas, which generally are more rigid, transmit these waves at a higher velocity than the hotter areas where these waves are slowed to a lower velocity.
The deepest inner portion of Earth, really dense representing 1/3 mass of its entire mass; differentiated in to two zones: a solid Fe(Iron) inner core well above melting temperature of Fe at the surface (but remains solid because of tremendous pressure) surrounded by a dense molten Fluid metallic Fe(Iron) outer core. The inner core is thought to have been formed first shortly after the Earth condensed. Outer core has a lighter density than inner core.
A polarity change in earth's magnetic field, With uneven regularity, the magnetic field fades to zero, then returns to full strength but with the magnetic poles reversed. Reversals have been recorded 9 times during the past 4 million years.
lower and upper together) represent about 80% of Earth's volume. The mantle is rich in oxides of iron. Magnesium, and silicates. They are dense and tightly packed at the depth, grading to less densities towards the surface. A broad transition zone of several hundred kilometers, centered between 410 and 660 km below the surface, separates the upper mantle from the lower mantle. Entire mantle experiences a gradual temperature increase with depth and a stiffening due to increased pressure.
Region of the upper mantle just below the lithosphere; the least rigid portion of Earth's interior and known as the plastic layer, flowing very slowly under extreme heat and pressure.
Earth's outer shell of crystalline surface rock, ranging from 5 to 60 km in thick ness from oceanic crust to mountain ranges.
o Continental crust is less dense that oceanic crust!
• Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho):
An important internal boundary between the crust and the high velocity portion of the uppermost crust mantle. The boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithosphere upper mantle; named for the Yugoslavian seismologist Mohorovičić, a zone of sharp material and density contrasts; also known as the Moho.
: essentially continental crust; it is crystalline and high in silica, aluminum, potassium, calcium and sodium. Continental crust is relatively low in density. Glossary: A course grained (slow cooling) intrusive igneous rock of 25% quartz and more than 50% potassium and sodium feldspars; characteristic of continental crust.
Oceanic crust is Basalt. A common extrusive igneous rock, fine-grained, comprising the bulk of the ocean floor crust, lava flows, and volcanic forms; gabbro is its intrusive form.
Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust.
The Geologic and Rock Cycle
• Deals with Earth's crust
• While the endogenic (internal) system is at work building landforms the
• exogenic (external): (energy atmosphere; water—weather system activated) system is busily wearing them down
• Geologic cycle is fueled by two sources ----Earth's internal heat, and solar energy (gravity) from space----influenced by the ever-present leveling force of Earth's gravity.
A general term characterizing the vast cycling that proceeds in the lithosphere. It encompasses the hydrologic cycle, tectonic cycle, and rock cycle.
A mineral is an organic, or nonliving, natural compound having a specific chemical formula and usually possessing a crystalline structure. The combination of elements gives each mineral its characteristics be it colors, hardness, density etc.
An assemblage of minerals bound together, or sometimes a mass of a single material ex: granite; rock with three minerals, rock salt, or volcanic glass, or non crystalline glassy obsidian or even solid organic material like rock.
Brings heat energy and materials to the surface and recycles old materials to mantle depths creating movement and deformations of the crust. Moves material btw surface and mantle
➢ Igneous rock (approx. 90% of Earth's crust although sedimentary rocks, soil or ocean frequently cover it): a rock that solidifies and crystalizes from a molten state.
• Form from magma, which is a molten rock below surface (intrusive vs extrusive). Magma is fluid highly gaseous, and under tremendous pressure.
• Magma either intrudes into crustal rocks, cools, and hardens or it extrudes onto the surface as lava.
Magma that issues from volcanic activity onto the surface; the extrusive rock that results when magma solidifies.
Intrusive igneous à pluton (penetrates crustal rock); batholith
(Largest pluton form: 100 sq. km)
• How fast and steady its temperature cooling history rate of an igneous rock determined à crystalline properties (fine-grained or glass which is faster cooling vs coarse grained which is slower cooling)
• sills are magma conduits of ancient volcanoes that have cooled and hardened that form parallel to layers of sedimentary rocks (parallel) vs. dikes (perpendicular)
• basalt - extrusive igneous rock (oceanic crust)
• Classifying igneous rocks à mineral composition/texture
• felsic:generaly lighter in color and less than than mafic mineral roks (feldspar and silica) vs mafic: rocks generally darker in color and great in density (magnesium and ferric)
• obsidian - volcanic glass; pumice
Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous Rocks
A mass of intrusive igneous rock that has cooled slowly in the crust; forms in any size or shape. The largest partially exposed pluton is a batholith.
The largest plutonic form exposed at the surface; an irregular shaped mass with surface greater than 100km^2; it invades crustal rocks, cooling slowly so that large crystals develop. Batholiths form the mass o many large mountain ranges-for example Sierra Nevada batholith in California, the Idaho batholith, and the Coast Range of batholith of British Columbia and Washington State.
• Sedimentary rocks
: one of the three basic rock types formed from the compaction, cementation, and hardening of sediments derived from other rocks. Solar energy and gravity drive the process of sedimentation with water as the principal transporting medium.
process of cementation, compaction and hardening of sediments into sedimentary rock.
A science that analyzes the sequence, spacing, geophysical and geochemical properties, thickness, and spatial distribution of rock strata.
The most common sedimentary chemical rock (non clastic); it is lithified calcium carbonate; very susceptible to chemical weathering by acids in the environment, including carbonic acid in rainfall.
• Metamorphic ROCKS
• Alteration under heat/temperature
• Compacted due to pressure/temp à more resistant to weathering
• Igneous rocks compressed due to collisions btw crustal portions
• Regional metamorphism - sediment collecting in broad depressions
• Contact metamorphism - heating due to rising magma
• Foliated (wavy striations); non-foliated (homogeneous)
• Metamorphic rock
One of the three basic rock types, it is existing igneous and sedimentary rock that has undergone profound physical and chemical change under increased pressure and temperature. Constituent mineral structures may exhibit foliated or non-foliated textures.
o Any rock can be transformed into it. May be changed both physically and chemically from original rocks.
o Most common cause of metamorphism is when subsurface rock is subjected to high temperatures and high compressional stresses occurring over millions of years.
o METAORPHIC ROCKS ARE FOLIATEDD
o Metamorphic rocks comprise the ancient roots of mountains. Ex: Grand canyon
• A Brief History
• A Brief History
• Symmetry among continents especially SA and Africa was noted early as mapping gained accuracy
• Wegener (1912) father of concept of: continental drift - migrating landmasses
• Pangaea (super continent) ~ the belief that the continent was one 225 million years ago during the Triassic era; mid-latitude coal deposits (Permian/Carboniferous Periods) due to once being near equator
A proposal by Alfred Wegner in 1912 stating that Earth's landmass over the past 225 million years from a supercontinent he called Pangaea; one landmass, meaning "all of earth" to the present configuration; the widely accepted plate tectonics
o Plate tectonics
The conceptual model and theory that encompasses continental drift of upwelling of magma, crustal plate movements, sea-floor spreading and subduction, earthquakes, volcanic activity, and lithospheric deformation such as warping/folding/faulting of crust
Sea floor spreading
the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
o Mid-ocean ridges
A submarine mountain range that extends more than 65,000km worldwide and averages more than 1000km in width; centered along sea floor spreading centers. The youngest crust anywhere on Earth is at the spreading centers of the mid ocean ridges. The oldest seafloor is in the western Pacific near Japan, dating to the Jurassic Period.
• Subduction zone:
An area where two plates of crust collide and the denser oceanic crust dives beneath the less dense continental plate, forming deep ocean trenches and seismically active regions
An elongated zone along which faulting occurs between mid-ocean ridges; produces a relative horizontal motion with no new crust formed or consumed; strike-slip motion is either left or right lateral.
sites of upwelling material/magma; found beneath both oceanic/continental crust and are fixed relative migrating plates
: The energy in steam and hot water heated by subsurface magma near groundwater. Geothermal energy literally refers to heat from Earth's interior, whereas geothermal power refers to specific applied strategies of geothermal electric or geothermal direct applications. This energy is used in Iceland, New Zealand, Italy, and northern California among other locations.
the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
the equilibrium that exists between parts of the earth's crust, which behaves as if it consists of blocks floating on the underlying mantle, rising if material (such as an ice cap) is removed and sinking if material is deposited.
one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.
a body of intrusive igneous rock.
the hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined, from about 300 to 200 million years ago.
Earth's crut is made up of
granite and basalt
what are the 3 types of rocks
an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, remelting, and further igneous intrusion.
formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle and accumulate or minerals to precipitate from a solution.
Composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of once-living organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.
the process by sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
the layers of rock
Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase. Note : Examples are marble, which can be formed from limestone, and slate, which is formed from shale.
Do not have lines
Plates pull away from eachother in opposite directions
an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
occur when two plates are sliding along each other in opposing directions.
the study of geographical features at particular times in the geological past.
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