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Erie Canal

building of the Erie Canal was the gretest construction project America had ever undertaken (at the time). It was an immediate financial success, 7 years after its opening it was completely paid off by the tolls charged. Gave NY direct access to Chicago and the growing West. NY was no able to compete and slowly replace New Orleans as the destination for the West's agricultural goods. Digging for the Canal began in 1817 and it opened in 1825. It was completed entirely with state funds and largely promoted by Gov. Clinton.
Significance: Increased trade between east coast and NYC with the West; other canals were built; canal aged started to be replaced by the railroads in the 30s


some 19th century Americans viewed the rising foreign population w/ alarm. Their fears led to the rise of nativism, which is a defense of native-born people and a hostility to the foreign born combined with a desire to stop or slow immigration. The rise of nativism was partly due to simple racism, and also to foreign workers who would accept jobs for lower pay, which in turn took jobs away from others


anti-immigrant sentiment peaked in the 1850s, and the Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner was formed. Their goals included: banning Cahtolics and immigrants from public office. They favored literacy tests for voting and strict naturalization laws. Their password to get into secret meetings was "I know nothing". 1854, they got many votes in the East, won control of MA legislature.
Significane: contributed to the collapes of the 2nd party system of Whigs and Democrats

The Factory System:

the change from home produced goods, to factory produced goods; laborers go to a central location where the owner supplise tools of production; the profound economic development of the 19th century was the emergence of the factory. Factories made serious leaps in the 1820s. By the 30s, factory system was spread from textiles and shoes to other manufactured goods.

Lowell and Watham System:

a system of a factory recruitment that enlisted young women, mostly farmer's daughters in their early teens to early 20s. These systems would have complete female labor forces and was mainly used in textile manufacturing. Was named after the cities where they first emerged.
Significance: increased opportunities for women as workers outside the home when female workers complained they were being exploited with long hours and low wages, they were replaced by immigrants

Shanty Irish

many viewed immigrants as being inferior to the native born. They began thinking that way mainly as a result of the wretched conditions most of the immigrants were forced to live in. They felt the Irish chose that style of living, when it was actually forced.

Commonwealth vs Hunt

Perhaps the greatest legal victroy of industrial workers came in MA in 1842. Commonwealth vs. Hunt declared that union were lawful organizations and the strike was a legal weapon to use

"Cult of Domesticity"/"Separate Spheres"

The emerging distinction between the public and privat worlds helped cause an increasign sharp rift between the social roles of men and women. There came a widespread view that women were gaurdians of "domestic virtues". Middleclass women were no longer producers, but instead chiefly consumers. Occupying separate spheres FINNISH

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