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Chapter 10 Muscular System, Chapter 11 Muscular Tissue
Terms in this set (131)
The study of the muscular system is known as
All of the following are functions of muscles except
What term best describes the relationship between the pronator quadratus and supinator?
Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called
Which of the following describes an appearance of red muscular tissue emerging directly from bone rather than being separated from it by an obvious tendon?
The rectus femoris is what muscle shape?
What separates groups of muscles?
Which term below best describes the deltoid?
Which term best describes the relationship of the deltoid and SITS muscles during shoulder abduction?
receiving calcium ions from the nerve ending
A muscle fiber depends on which of the following for excitation?
The semitendinosus is an example of what muscle shape?
Which of the following muscles is the prime mover for inhalation?
Which of the following extensors of the head is the most superficial?
The occipitalis and frontalis are connected via the
levator palpebrae superioris
Which of the following muscles of facial expression is not innervated by the facial nerve?
A point of convergence for several muscles of the lower face is called the
The ________ originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible.
Which one of these muscles helps to open the mouth (depress the mandible)?
accessory and vagal nerves
What is(are) the innervations(s) of the palatoglossus?
Which of the following muscles of mastication would be responsible for mandibular elevation?
The aponeurosis of the external oblique forms a(n) ________ at its inferior margin.
The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the
While sitting in your desk, you drop your pencil onto the floor. You bend over to pick up the pencil. In order to straighten up and continue your exam you must use which of the following muscles?
Which of the following muscles is not externally visible on the trunk of the body?
Unilateral contraction of which muscle causes ipsilateral flexion of the lumbar vertebral column?
knee and hip extensors
In lifting a heavy weight from the floor, one should use the power of the ___ in order to avoid muscle strain in the lower back.
In a whiplash injury, the neck undergoes forced hyperextension then hyperflexion, injuring multiple muscles in the neck. Which of the following muscles would be injured during the hyperextension phase of the injury?
Tendinous intersections divide the _______ into segments externally visible on the abdomen of a well-muscled person.
The rectus abdominis is a(n) ________ muscle, while the rectus femoris is a(n) ______ muscle.
sternal manubrium and medial one-third of clavicle; mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line
Which of the following correctly states the origin and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?
trapezius and serratus anterior
The muscles that laterally rotate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders, are the
Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?
Which muscle of respiration is innervated by the phrenic nerve?
After taking their wedding vows, a bride and groom often ceremonially use which of the following muscles before walking away from the altar?
Which muscle originates at the manubrium, inserts on the thyroid cartilage, and aids in singing low notes?
external urethral sphincter
Some people suffer involuntary urination because of incompetence of what muscle?
True, the coccygeus is innervated by the 3rd and 4th sacral nerves and assists the levator ani.
True or False: A sacral fracture affecting the S3 and S4 nerve roots would result in a person having difficulty with evacuation of the bowels.
A baseball pitcher who injures one of his SITS muscles most commonly sustains tears to the tendon of which muscle?
It rotates the scapula and depresses the apex of the shoulder.
Which of the following is true regarding the levator scapulae?
Which of the following is an intrinsic muscle of the hand?
long thoracic nervenerve
The serratus anterior is innervated by which nerve
Which muscle acting on the arm assists in deep inspiration?
flexor digitorum profundus tendon.
A butcher who cuts the distal portion of his fingers may cut the
When a nurse draws blood, it is not uncommon for the needle to penetrate which muscle near the cubital region?
The antagonist for the triceps brachii is the
It directly inserts on all digits of the hand except the thumb.
Which of the following best describes the insertion of the extensor digitorum?
extensor carpi radialis longus
Tennis elbow is a common term describing injury to which of the following?
abductor digiti minimi
An injury that results in complete functional loss of the ulnar nerve will affect which
Carpal tunnel pressure is sometimes relieved by surgically excising part or all of which structure?
The longest muscle in the human body is the
Which of the following muscles is in the medial compartment of the thigh?
Which muscle(s) in the figure insert(s) on the head of the fibula?
2, 4 and 5
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the tibial nerve?
1, 2 and 5
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for medially rotating the tibia?
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for abducting and medially rotating the thigh?
Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the obturator nerve?
True, the deep fibular nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the leg.
True or False: Injury to the deep fibular nerve would cause inability to extend ones toes.
False, the triceps surae consists of the gastrocnemius and soleus.
True or False: The triceps surae consists of three muscles in the lower limb.
ruptured calcaneal tendon
A clinician induces contraction of the gastrocnemius and soleus and notices that the foot does not plantar flex as expected. Which of the following would be a logical diagnosis?
atrophy of the flexor digiti minimi.
A male sustains a crushing injury to his foot. After weeks of care, he begins to notice that he cannot bend the little toe on his right foot. A logical diagnosis would be
calcaneal tendon; his triceps surae
A heavyset middle-aged insurance salesman who doesn't exercise often accepts his friend's invitation to a pickup basketball game. When attempting a jump shot, he falls to the ground in pain, grasping at the calf of his leg. There is an enormous bulge in his leg immediately below the knee, and he is unable to plantarflex that foot. Most likely he has injured his ___ and the bulge is ___.
An Olympic sprinter readies for a race. After the sound of the starting gun, he propels himself forward from the starting block and immediately grimaces in pain, grabbing for the back of his thigh. Within 48 hours he begins noticing extensive bruising on the back of his thigh extending into the back of the knee. He now has difficulty rising from a seated position and flexing his knee. Bending at the waist generates more pain. Which muscle is likely injured?
After childbirth a woman begins experiencing tremendous pain in her groin, making it difficult for her to walk. She has difficulty walking due to the pain. An X-ray shows a fracture extending from her symphysis pubis to the inferior ramus of the pubis. As a result of the fracture, which group of muscles might be impaired?
A skydiver's parachute fails to deploy. After some struggle, his reserve chute deploys in time to save his life. However, his landing is harder than normal and he feels his knee slightly hyperextend. He shakes it off and goes about his normal routine. Later that day he begins experiencing knee pain. Two days later he notices that his knee "pops" when he crouches and soon discovers he has dislocated his femur on the knee. What muscle was likely injured initially?
A skateboarder falls and lands directly on his buttocks and lower back. He does not feel too much pain and so he continues skating. After a couple of days he begins experiencing right hip pain and notices his right foot and leg are rotated to the right. A doctor diagnoses muscle spasm. Which of the following muscles is most likely causing the leg and foot rotation?
Extensibility refers to the ability of a muscle to stretch.
A dark band formed by parallel thick filaments that partly overlap the thin filaments is known as an H band
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the smooth ER of a muscle fiber.
Clinically, dystrophin is the most important noncontractile protein to occur in muscle fibers
The sliding filament theory of muscle contraction has emerged from research only in the last 10 to 15 years.
A deficiency of Ach receptors leads to muscle paralysis in myasthenia gravis
An isometric contraction does not change muscle length
Some smooth muscle is autorhythmic.
Which one is most dependent on extracellular Ca2+?
Which muscle tissue contracts in response to conscious nervous stimulation?
Which does not exhibit striations
Which has the widest T tubules?
Which muscle tissue has the greatest capacity for regeneration?
Which acts during a power stroke?
Which is predominately made up of myosin?
Which band contains overlapping thick and thin filaments?
to neutralize carbon dioxide buildup
Which of the following is not a purpose of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption in muscle?
Which muscle type depends solely on the sarcoplasmic reticulum as its calcium source?
smooth and cardiac muscle
Which muscle(s) can contract without the need for nervous stimulation?
in the liver
Where is lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid?
5 ATP per second
During muscle contraction, a single myosin head consumes ATP at a rate of about
The term for shortening of a muscle while maintaining constant tension is
type IIB fast glycolytic fibers
Which fibers are primarily responsible for producing lactic acid?
Michael Jordan was arguably the best player in professional basketball history. Scientifically one would expect him to have highly developed
intercalated discs of cardiac muscle
Where would you expect to find numerous gap junctions in muscular tissue?
it does not have Z discs
The contraction strength of smooth muscle is relatively independent of its resting length partly because
contracts more rapidly but relaxes more slowly.
In comparison to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
Which of the following is very important for muscle to continue contraction during anaerobic respiration?
The minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction is called
If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the previous twitch, the most likely result will be
The muscle lengthens but tension remains constant.
Which of the following is true concerning isotonic eccentric contraction?
Which of the following has the largest mitochondria?
One somatic motor neuron is stimulated by how many muscle fibers?
To stimulate muscle contraction, acetylcholine is released from the ___________ into the
The absence or inhibition of AChE at a synapse would lead to which of the following?
to inhibit the function of cholinesterase
Which statement best describes the goal of medications used to treat myasthenia gravis?
A single high-voltage stimulation of a muscle will result in
Aerobic respiration produces approximately _____ more ATPs per glucose molecule than glycolysis does
longer aerobic respiration
Athletes who train at high altitudes increase their red blood cell count and thus increase their oxygen supply during exercise. Increased oxygen supply results in
Cardiac muscle has very little capacity for regeneration because it lacks
Which of the following would be caused by contraction of smooth muscle?
two terminal cisternae and one T tubule.
The triads of a muscle fiber consist of
recruit more muscle fibers.
As you are lifting a box someone places extra weight on top of it. For your muscle to continue contracting and lifting the box, the muscle must
The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscle is
prevent calcium from entering smooth muscle, thus allowing the muscle to relax
Drugs called calcium channel blockers may be used to lower blood pressure by causing arteries to vasodilate. These drugs
Exposure to Clostridium tetani causes continuous release of ACh. What effect does this have on smooth muscle?
between the thin myofilaments and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber.
Dystrophin, the protein that is defective in muscular dystrophy, is normally found
Ca2+ accumulates in the sarcoplasm faster than the sarcoplasmic reticulum can reabsorb it.
A reason that muscle twitches become progressively stronger in treppe is
to release norepinephrine.
The purpose of varicosities in muscle physiology is
donates one of its phosphate groups to ADP.
increases permeability of the sarcolemma.
Release of ACh
The intracellular environment is negatively charged.
Which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential (RMP)?
The sarcolemma of a resting muscle fiber is most permeable to
. The triad allows for Ca2+ release when a muscle fiber is excited.
What is the purpose of the triad?
a 22-year-old football player
Which of the following individuals would have more mitochondria in his skeletal muscle?
the phosphagen system
Which of the following systems would provide energy for a racquetball player?
Loss of muscle mass from lack of activity is termed
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a muscle cell?
an elastic filament.
A myofilament that flanks a thick filament and anchors it to a Z disc is called
The bladder's ability to greatly distend and return to normal tension is due to the ___ of smooth muscles
partially stretched before being stimulated
A skeletal muscle generates the greatest tension when it is
make more use of aerobic respiration.
A volleyball player depends on the gastrocnemius muscles for plantar flexion, whereas a marathon runner depends more on the soleus muscles for the same action. This is because the soleus muscles
In a relaxed muscle fiber, the active sites of actin are blocked by
In skeletal muscle, alternating light and dark bands are termed
increase the average number of myofibrils per muscle fiber.
The training regimen of a competitive weight lifter is designed partly to
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