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112 terms

Chemistry 1 Honors Midterm

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Chemistry
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes.
Mass
The measure of the amount of matter. The measurement you make using a balance.
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Compound
A substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Extensive properties
Depend on the amount of matter that is present. Include: Volume, mass and the amount of energy in a substance.
Intensive properties
Do not depend on the amount of matter present. Include: Melting point, boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy.
Physical Property
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.
Physical change
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. For example: Grinding, cutting, melting and boiling a material.
Change of state
A physical change of a substance from one state to another.
Solid
Matter that has a definite volume and definite shape.
Liquid
Matter that has a definite volume but an indefinite shape.
Gas
Matter that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.
Plasma
A high-temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms. An important fourth state of matter. Found in fluorescent bulbs.
Chemical Property
A substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.
Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.
Products
The substances that are formed by the chemical change.
Reactants
The substances that react in a chemical change .
Mixture
A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.
Homogeneous
Mixtures that are uniform in composition. They have the same proportion of components throughout.
Solutions
Another name for homogeneous mixtures.
Heterogeneous
A mixture that is not uniform throughout.
Groups or Families
The vertical columns of the periodic table.
Periods
The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table.
Metal
An element that is a good electrical conductor and a good heat conductor.
Nonmetal
An element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Metalloid
An element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals.
Scientific Method
A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data.
System
A specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.
Hypothesis
Testable statement
Controls
During testing, the experimental conditions that remain constant.
Variable
Any condition that changes.
Model
More than a physical object; it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related. They may be visual, verbal or mathematical.
Theory
A broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena.
Quantity
Something that has magnitude, size, or amount. (Not the same as a measurement.)
Weight
A measure of the gravitational pull on matter.
tera
10 to the twelfth power
giga
10 to the ninth power
mega
10 to the sixth power
kilo
10 to the third power
hecto
10 to the second power
deka
10 to the first power
meter, liter, gram
10 to the zero power
deci
10 to the -1 power
centi
10 to the -2 power
milli
10 to the -3 power
micro
10 to the -6 power
nano
10 to the -9 power
pico
10 to the -12 power
femto
10 to the -15 power
atto
10 to the -18 power
Area formula
length x width
Volume formula
length x width x height
Density formula
mass divided by volume
Molar Mass formula
Mass divided by the amount of substance
Molar volume formula
Volume divided by the amount of substance
Energy formula
force x length
Volume
The amount of space occupied by an object.
Density
The ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume.
Conversion Factor
A ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other.
Dimensional Analysis
A mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements.
Accuracy
Refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured.
Precision
Refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way.
Percentage Error
Calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100.
Significant Figures
In a measurement, consists of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated.
Scientific Notation
Numbers written in the form M x 10 to the nth power, where the factor M is a number greater or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number.
Directly Proportional
Dividing one quantity by another gives a constant value.
Inversely Proportional
Multiplying one quantity by another gives a constant product.
Law of conservation of mass
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.
Law of definite proportions
That fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass, regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.
Law of multiple proportions
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element. All consist of two regions. The nucleus is a very small region located at the center.
Nucleus
A very small region located at the center of an atom. In every atom, it is made up of at least one positively charged particle called a proton and usually one or more neutral particles called neurons. Surrounding this very small region is a region occupied by negatively charged particles called electrons. This region is very large compared to it.
Subatomic Particles
Refers to protons, neutrons and electrons.
Nuclear Forces
Short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear particles together.
Atomic Number
The number of protons of each atom of that element. (Z)
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different masses.
Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope.
Nuclide
A general term for a specific isotope of an element.
Atomic Mass Unit
A unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12. (Abbreviation, amu)
Average atomic mass
The weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Mole
The amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g or carbon - 12. Abbreviated mol.
Avogadro's number
The number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance. 6.022 x 10^23
Molar Mass
The mass of one mole of a pure substance.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space. Visible light is a kind.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Together, all the forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Wavelength
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.
Photoelectric effect
The emissions of electrons from metal when light shines on the metal.
Quantum
The minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.
Photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy. The energy depends on the frequency of the radiation.
Ground State
The lowest energy state of an atom.
Excited State
A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state.
Line-emission Spectrum
When a narrow beam of the emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into four specific colors of the visible spectrum. Continuous Spectrum
Continuous Spectrum
The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
States that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and the velocity of an electron or any other particle.
Quantum Theory
Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.
Orbital
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an elecron.
Quantum Numbers
Specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
Principal Quantum Number
Symbolized by n, indicated the main energy level occupied by the electron.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
Symbolized by l, indicated the shape of the orbital.
Magnetic Quantum Number
symbolized by m, indicated the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
Spin Quantum Number
Has only two possible values - (+1/2, -1/2) - which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.
Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Aufbau Principle
An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
Hund's Rule
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin state
Noble Gases
One of the elements of Group 18 of the periodic table. (helium, Neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon): Noble gases are unreactive.
A Noble Gas Configuration
An outer main energy level occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons.
Chemical
Any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.
Element
An element is composed of one kind of atom.
Compounds
Made from two or more elements in fixed proportions.
SI
This system of measurement is used in science. It has seven base units: the meter (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), kelvin (temperature), mole (amount of substance), ampere (amount of current), and candela (luminous intensity).
Derived Unit
A unit of measure that is a combination of other measurements.