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Test 3 Cog Psych ch. 4-7
Terms in this set (88)
neurons do not respond to objects, they respond to a particular small feature
an interesting/ important part or quality of a visual object
using facial features as an example of features
Binding (part of FIT)
process in which features (e.g. shapes. line orientation, color motion, location) are combined to create a coherent object
Attention (part of FIT)
one hypothesis for how binding occurs
stage where objects are analyzed as separate features (FIT)
Focused attention stage
stage where features are combined (FIT)
anytime a person mixes up or combines two different features (FIT)
ability to focus on a particular position in space and be prepared for a stimulus to appear in that location
Test that studied spatial cueing of attention
Valid cues 80%
Invalid cues 20%
Neutral cues- very few trials
unaware of change in an area, often times won't identify
some cases where people can "miss" changes to an object even though they are aware that there are changes.
process of retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas. amd skills are the original information is no longer present
When is memory active?
active anytime a past experience affects the way a person thinks or behaves currently or in the future.
Stage of memory where information is gained and placed into memory
Stage of memory where information is held until it is needed
Stage of memory where "remembering" or a pulling of information is done, when needed.
theory in which cognitive processes (e.g learning) requires several steps.
Incoming processes--> sensory memory-->short term memory--> long term memory (also involves lost informations, maintenance rehearsal, and retrieval)
very brief (fraction of a second) 'after image' left in the sensory system after the stimulation disappears
visual sensory memory
auditory sensory memory
newer theory of short term memory where there is a brief storage of memory that needs repetition to stay in memory.
Long term memory
-storage of information, experiences, facts, and muscle coordination
memory for one's personal past experiences
memory of facts and knowledge
Memory for muscle coordination
current views say that sensory memory is deemed ________ important
originally thought of as the "loading dock" for Long term memory, but been modified to be a status of memory rather than a place.
Differences of LTM and WM
size of storage
ease of entry
ease of retrieval
WM depends on current activity (fragile)
Functions of WM
Sometimes information is given piece by piece, sometimes all at once. WM keeps information active for when needed
Amount of info held in WM
measurements change over time
Experiment where a list of numbers is repeated until error are made. no more that 7 +- 2
units of information
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
Reading span task
experiment where subject read sentences and recalls the last words of the sentences in order.
-Involves storing final words
-working with full sentences
-switching back and forth between these tasks
Strongly correlated to digit span performance and more strongly to other methods
created a working memory model that involved a central executive system, 'slave' systems, and episodic buffer
organizes information into slave systems, combines information in slave systems, selective attention to slave systems
involves the visuospatial sketchpad, and Phonological loop
slave system that holds visual and spatial information
holds auditory information
recent addition to Baddeley's model that holds a chronological sequence.
Comparing LTM with WM
has an archive
covers seconds to infinity
details of memory can differ
has a large capacity
Free recall memory task
Participant hears a word list (approx. 30 words) and is immediately asked to recall from memory as many words as possible
average is between 12-15 words remembered.
the first few words are remembered; reflects mental rehearsal and LTM
the last few words are remembered; reflects that previous items are bumped out
Explicit memory task
memory task in which participant is told that they will have to remember information
Implicit memory task
memory task in which a person is not told they need to recall the information
How to wipe out recency effect
having participants do a task that requires working memory (e.g counting) to wipe out a certain effect in WM
tasks that do not require working memory
no presentation of WM tasks
How to improve Primacy effect
slow presentation of the word list so that participants have more time to rehearse
WM and LTM are two ______ memory systems
Doing a ____ task after memorizing a word list will 'bump out' the last words, elimitanting the _______ effect
Slow presentation of the word list will improve memory for early words-- boosting the ________ effect
fMRI studies show hippocampal regions are active when recalling ______ words on the list, but not for words at the _______ of the list.
the form in which stimuli are represented
keeping a pattern in WM--> visualizing a friend's face
repeating a number in WM---> hearing a song to remember the lyrics
remembering numbers as an infamous year---> getting the 'gist' of what someone is saying
-Epileptic Patient who had his Hippocampus removed in both hemispheres
-Working memory was still intact, but could not be transferred to LTM
-Patient who had Parietal lobe damage from a motorcycle accident
-Normal LTM but poor WM (digit span =two items)
-Memory issues for sound (phonological loop but not visuo sketchpad)
Patient whose hippocampus was damaged due to brain swelling
-Musician, who still had procedural memories but can't form new memories (wakes up every 20 seconds) - can't transfer from WM -->LTM
-Semantic memory intact, but episodic impaired
Episodic memory (Tulving)
(mental time travel) -vivid/ rich memoring including emotion
Semantic memory (tulving)
(no travel) - don't remember where you learned info, you just know it.
Participants kept audiotape diaries of their day and semantic facts
Listened to those recordings during MRI
Interactions of Episodic and semantic memories
Episodic can become semantic aka break ups, students cheating
Knowledge affects experience
-Semantic knowledge guides experience- which affects episodic memory
Memory for ourselves that includes semantic and episodic memory
--our sense of self drives what we attend to -can lead to memory errors.
memorizes that we are aware of, can verbalize
Memories we can't verbalize or may not even be aware of.
Procedural (Implicit) memories
Often thinking about these can impair memory
Often spared in amnesiacs
--Clive wearing still plays music
--HM and Mirror Drawing
--HM and the 'Joke'
Mirror drawing test
Most popular form of testing when testing for implicit procedural memory
HM and the Joke
Patient who had a memory disorder and had a doctor play a prank with a hand buzzer and even though he can't remember the incident, he still is very cautious about shaking the doctors hand later on.
adjusting to regularities in our environment (aka walking speed in a city vs walking in a small town)
the presentation of one of the stimulus (priming stimulus) changes the response to another stimulus.
Perfect and Askew
Participants scanned magazine articles, but wasn't told to pay attention to the ads on the opposing page.
people rate statements as being true just because they have heard them first, or before.
Pavlov dogs; Implicit memory- can't explain why.
Processing of getting information into LTM
Ex. Repeating info
repeating information over and over again without considering meaning or connecting to other information you already have in memory
Relating information to something meaningful
Theory argues that the quality of encoding/ recall depends on how deeply information is processed.
shallow vs deep processing
Problems with Processing theory
Problems- it's very difficult to define what depth is in this theory
Theory has fallen out of favor, but the deep/ shallow idea still remains
How to Encode in improve Memory
Some methods to improve memory
Create visual images (images for words)
Connect information to yourself (self-referential effect)
Generating/ creating new information (making up raps)
Organizing info into grouping (home vs school vs work tasks)
Retrieval practices (creating own exam questions)
process of transferring information from LTM--> WM
Many memory failures are due to ________ issues
Provide all words you remember
--no cues, no hints
--require memory search
task that asks, "what face did you see?"
--Identify what you saw out of learned items and distractors
Words or other stimuli that help us remember info stored in memory
ex. - returning to the place where we originally had the thought
-flood memories at an 'old haunt'
-Music/ smells/ tastes triggering memories
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