50 terms

Physical Therapy

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Terms in this set (...)

ROM
range of motion, done to maintain health of musculoskeletal system
contracture
abnormal shortening of a muscle
muscle atrophy
lack of muscle activity; reduces muscle size, tone, and power
Active ROM exercises
the patient is able to move each joint to the full extent of intended function
Active Assistive ROM
Performed by the client with assist by PT or RN
Increases motion in joint
Passive ROM exercises
another person moves each joint for a patient who is not able to exercise
Resistive ROM exercises
administered by a therapist, these exercises are performed against resistance provided by the therapist
Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
Adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body
Flexion
bending a joint
extension
Straightening of a joint
Hyperextension
Excessive straightening of a body part
Rotation
circular movement around an axis
Circumduction
circular movement of one end while the other end is stationary
Pronation
turning the palm downward
Supination
turning the palm upward
opposition
Movement of the thumb to touch the fingertips
Inversion
turning inward
Eversion
turning outward
Dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion
pointing toes
radial flexion
tilts the hand toward the thumb
ulnar flexion
tilts the hand toward the little finger
Principles to observe: Movements
slow, smooth and gentle
Principles to observe: Support
above and below joint
Principles to observe: Force
never forced beyond ROM
Principles to observe: complaint
stop if pt complains and report
Principles to observe: Reps
3-5 times or as Rx
Principles to observe: Pt involvement
patients are encouraged to assist
Principles to observe: Exposure
prevent unnecessary exposure
gait belt/transfer belt
a device used to support a person during ambulation
Belt check List: size
should fit securely around waist
Belt check List: grasp
underhand
Belt check List: therapist position
to the side and slightly behind pt
Belt check List: application
over clothing
Contraindications
factors that prevent the use of treatment
crutches
Devices used to assist injured or weak patients with walking
Types of crutches
axillary, forearm, and platform
Fitting crutches: shoes
low, broad heel, 1 - 1.5 inches, non skid sole
Fitting crutches: position
4-6 in. in front and to the side of pt
Fitting crutches: length
2 in. between axillary bar and under arm
Fitting crutches: handpieces
adjusted so elbow is flexed at 25-30 degree angle
4 point gait
1: 1 crutch
2: opposite foot
3: other crutch
4: other foot

nothing moves together
3 point gait
1: move two crutches and bad leg together
2: move good foot
2 point gait
1: move on crutch and opposite foot together
2: move other crutch and other foot together
swing through gait
crutches forward, lift both feet and swing forward
Cryotherapy
therapeutic use of cold
Thermotherapy
Treatment by use of heat
types of cryotherapy
moist cold, dry cold
types of thermotherapy
moist heat, dry heat