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SMGT 305 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (20)
The use of rewards and punishment which wither increases or decreases the likelihood of similar response occurring in the future
Principles of Reinforcement
If doing something results in a good consequence (reward) people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional pastiche reinforcement
Approaches to Influencing Behavior
Positive- approach focuses on rewarding appropriate behavior, which increases the likelihood of desirable responses occurring in the future.
Negative- approach focuses on punishing undesirable behaviors, which should lead to future redirection of these inappropriate behaviors.
TARGET Approach to Creating a Positive Motivational Climate
Create a mastery-oriented climbs manipulating the following environment condition using the TARGET principle.
TARGET: Task, Authority, Rewards, Groupings, Evaluation, Timing
T.A.R.G.E.T. Approach to Creating a Positive Motivational Climate
Task- Sport Mastery over competition
Authority-Athletes make decision/input
Rewards- for improvement not comparison
Groupings- cooperative/working together
Evaluation- based on personal improvement
Timing- proper and immediate feedback
Principles of Positive Reinforcement
Choose effective reinforcers (e.g., social, material, activity, special outings, intrinsic and extrinsic).
Choose timing or schedule of reinforcement.
Early learning—continuous and immediate reinforcement desirable
Learned skill—intermittent and immediate reinforcement desirable
Reward appropriate behaviors—choose the proper behaviors to reward.
Shape or reinforce successful approximations of difficult behaviors.
Reward performance as well as outcome.
Reward emotional and social skill.
Can control and change behavior, but 80-90% of reinforcement should be positive.
Can serve a useful educational purpose.
Can deter future cheating of wrong doing.
Guidelines for using punishment
-punish behavior, not individual
-allow athlete's input in making punishments
-don't use phys activity as punishment
-make sure punishment is not perceived as reward or attention
-impose impersonally, don't berate or yell
-don't punish athletes while they're playing
-don't embarrass individuals
-use sparingly, but enforce it when it's used
Modifying behavior in sport
Behavior Modification is the:
- Systematic application of the principles of reinforcement to change behavior
- It may be called: Contingency management behavior coaching = Behavior modification
Principles of Behavior Programs
Target the behaviors you want to change.
Define targeted behaviors.
Record the behaviors.
Provide meaningful feedback.
State outcomes clearly.
Tailor reward systems.
Ways to Choose and Monitor Target Behaviors
Direct observation of single behaviors
Behavioral Checklists for recording multiple behavior
Videotape of practice, pre-competition and competition
Post-performance videotape reconstruction of verbal behavior
People strive in warmly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master the task at hand
They enjoy competition like the action and excitement, focusing on having fun and want to learn skills to the best of their ability
Factors influencing intrinsic Motivation
Success and failure
Focus of competition
Need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness
Intrinsic motivation and Extrinsic Rewards
Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person's intrinsic motivation for the activity
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Reward perceived as providing info about a person's competence will increase intrinsic motivation
How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport
Scholarship: athletic scholarships can either decrease or increase athletes level of intrinsic motivation
Competitive: Success = increase motivation; Failure decrease motivation
Feedback: Positive feedback increases motivation; Negative feedback decreases motivation
Increasing Intrinsic Motivation
Provide for successful experiences.
Give rewards contingent on performance.
Use verbal and nonverbal praise.
Vary content and sequence of practice drills.
Involve participants in decisions.
Set realistic performance goals.
Flow (the Zone)
Holistic, intrinsically motivating sensation that people feel when they are totally involved in an activity or are on automatic pilot
Controllability of Flow States
Research with athletes indicates that they cannot control flow.
Athletes do report that they can increase the probability of flow occurring.
Negative side of flow
A potential negative consequence might be that of contributing to dependence on an activity once associated with a flow experience.
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