Group of extinct omnivorous bipedal hominins. Includes A. anamensis, afarensis, africanus and some others.
Evolution of bone, muscle, physiology and inherited behaviour. To be distinguished from cultural evolution.
Buttress of bone on the base of the femur. Humans have this on the outer base and apes on the inner. It prevents collapse of the knee inwards.
Hominin Tribe (below subfamily) that includes humans and bipedal fossils like Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Also called hominid.
The environmental factors that favour certain phenotypes over others. (See the chapter on Evolution for more on this.)
Carrying angle; the angle, less than 180°, between the femur and tibia. It indicates bipedalism.
Includes gorilla, orangutan, gibbon and chimpanzee. No tail, large brain; brachiating knuckle walkers.
(transmission of beliefs, ideas, knowledge by learning from other members of group) Tools, Fire, Shelter, Clothing, Food-Gathering, Abstract thought, Domestication of plants and animals.
H - Feet
Arched (shock absorbing; walk longer distances). Toes face forward, longer big toe (provides thrust). Big heel bone (firm base to push against for walking/running)
A - Feet
Flat feet, big toe separate, facing outwards from foot and opposable (grasping branches and climbing trees)
H - Femur,Knee Joint, Valgus Angle
Femur hangs inward angle from hip (center of gravity between feet) Knee Joint (maintains centre of gravity) Buttresses (creates valgus angle, prevents sideways movemetn of lower leg)
A - Femur,Knee Joint, Valgus Angle
Femur hangs vertically from hip, knee joint, no buttresses or valgus angle (gives better swinging motion in branches)
HvA - Spine
H: S shape (keeps body weight above hip joints) A: Slightly curved (counterbalances downward force of organs and chest)
HvA - Chest
H: Flattened front to back, oval in cross-section (body weight brought close to spine and over centre of gravity. A: Rounded front to back, circular on cross-section (organs supported by rubs and large abdominal muscles)
HvA - Hands
H: Fully opposable thumb, straight fingers (manipulative precision grip). A: Short, opposable thumb and curved fingers (power grip and hooking)
H - Skull External
Foramen magnum at centre of base of skull (skull balances at top of spine). No brow ridges, sagittal crest or nuchal crest.
A - Skull External
Foramen magnum and back of skull, large brow ridges, sagittal crest, nuchal crest.
H - Teeth and Jaws
Smaller teeth and jaws (tools cutting up and fire softening). Enamel thicker and canines small. Jaw and tooth row more parabolic shaped.
A - Teeth and Jaws
Larger teeth and jaws, large canines (display, sexual diapmorphism) distema on upper tooth row, jaw and tooth row U shape.
H - Endocranial
Cranium volume 1400, Speacialised areas: Cerebellum (balance, swelling at back), Cerebrum (thinking skills, top surface expanded and folded), Broca's area (speech production), Wernicke's area (understanding speecha and writing) both swelling left side.
HvA - Pharynx and Larynx
H: longer P, lower L (modifies sound and tone of speech). A: shorter P, higher L (modification of tone and sound cannot occur)
HvA - Hair and Skin
H: finer and shorter hair but same number per cm3 and more sweat glands (cooling capacity for higher activity rates). A: thicker hairs, fewer sweat glands (insulation from sun, lower activity rates)
HvA - Pelvis
H: short and wide (reduces stress of upper body weight in hips, supports abdominal organs). A: tall and narrow (large surface area for leg muscle placement)
A genus dating from 4-1million years ago. Also known as the southern ape. Brain size <500cc (cubic centimeters)
Genus to which humans below. Ranging from 2 million years ago (mya) to the present day. Brain size >600cc
Southern ape from the afar desert. Earliest fossil 4-2.8 million years ago. Remains found in Ethiopia and Sth Tanzania. Small stature, brain size similar to chimp. Bipedal, ape-like face (elongated, pronounced brow ridges).
Small, ape-like face (elongated, pronounced brow ridges), brain size chimp, free hands, walk upright,
Features of A. afarensis
Lived from 3-2mya. Similar features to A. afarensis. Stature; bipedal, small brain, flatter face, large molars (plant based diet), brow ridges.
2.4-1.4 mya. Larger stature & bones, more muscular. V. large molars. Small brain
The 'handy man', first to use very primitive tools. Approx 2mya. East Africa. Stature; smaller teeth and jaw, human size, dominant brow ridge, sloping skull. Brain size approz 600cc
Smaller teeth and jaw, human size, dominant brow ridge, sloping skull, brain size approx 600cc
features of H. habilis
The direct ancestors of Homo Sapiens. Approx 1mya. Migrated to other parts of africa. Less hairy, no chin, arches over eyes. Larger brain (1000cc) with more cortex allowing higher functioning. More complex tools. Teeth changed to meat eaters
Our species. Physical features: Flat high dome forehead, no arches over eyes, 1300cc brain.
basin shaped to support internal organs/ iliac blades shorter and broader/ stabilizes weight transmission
angled inward/ legs more directly under the body/ modified knee joint helps to extend it fully