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ANS Exam 3
Terms in this set (134)
pH changes have an effect on...
protein stability and biochemical processes.
Normal metabolism constantly produces and excretes...
CO2 into the blood
A large accumulation of hydrogen ions/[H+] may...
kill by binding to proteins in cells and changing their charge, shape, and function.
Cells and enzymes work best at what pH?
stops pH from rising or falling too quickly. by keeping H+ from binding to proteins
normal metabolism is achieved by two mechanisms:
-Elimination of CO2 via exhalation (rapid)
-Excretion of H+ and HCO3- via kidneys (slower)
Main form of H+ excretion in urine is
2 mechanisms that can cause acid/base imbalance:
1. Respiratory (hypo or hyper ventilation)
2. Metabolic (main reason for change in blood HCO3-)
Proteins can function as...
weak acids or weak bases depending on pH
pH below 7.3 =
pH above 7.44 =
For digestion, ______ is needed in the lumen of the stomach
a high [H+] (no buffering)
To initiate the digestion of proteins...
a very high H+ is needed
The anion secreted by the stomach along with the H+ is ____
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --->
6CO2 + 6H2O
to evaluate energy flow in animals we use the principles of:
-1st law of thermodynamics
-theory of relativity
Bomb calorimetry =
Gross energy (GE)
Indirect calorimetry =
measuring heat produced as a function of O2 and CO2
Gross energy =
total energy in feed
gross energy - fecal energy
Metabolizable energy =
Digestible energy minus urine and gases
Net energy =
the amount of high-quality energy that is available to be used from a resource after subtracting the energy needed to make it usable
less energy from...
forage than concentrate
Ruminants are less..
energy efficient than non-ruminants
Minimal amount of energy to sustain life:
-fasting heat production (FHP)
-Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Measuring BMR you need to meet 4 basic conditions;
-animal must be at rest
-animal must be awake
-no nutrients being absorbed from the intestines (fasting)
-animals in thermal neutral zone i.e. not expending energy to keep warm or stay cool
Heat Increment (HI) =
energy given off as heat during digestion and metabolism above maintenance
Four sources of Heat increment:
-digestion -fermentation -waste product formation -nutrient metabolism
Positive Nitrogen balance;
N intake > N excretion.
observed during tissue growth (childhood), pregnancy, body building or during recovery from illness
Negative Nitrogen balance;
N intake < N excretion.
Associated with inadequate dietary protein, lack of an essential amino acid, or during physiologic stresses, such as trauma, burns, illness or surgery.
Measuring protein quality:
-protein efficiency ratio (PER)
-biological value (BV)
-net protein utilization (NPU)
PER is represented by..
gain in the weight per gram protein ingested
Biological Value (BV) =
BV is defined as the percentage of absorbed nitrogen retained by the body
Distinguishing features of digestive systems;
-architecture of GI tract
-nature and location of 'agents of digestion'
-chemical nature of absorbed products
Animals where SCFA's are highest source of energy?
Sheep, Cows, Gorilla
Gastric capacity is highest in...
Functions of saliva;
lubrication, aids swallowing
Regions of the stomach;
Cardiac (lined by epithelial cells)
2 types of cells in Fundic region of stomach?
Parietal - HCl
Chief - mucin, pepsinogen, rennin, and lipase
do not secrete pepsinogen.
secrete chymosin or rennin
Small intestine is composed of...
3 segments of the small intestine?
bile and pancreatic secretions. active site of enzymatic digestion.
Nutrient absorption (H20, vitamins & minerals)
Some microbial fermentation
The pH of SI increases to...
~7 at the Ileum
major site of digestion and absorption.
line small intestine. lined by enterocytes.
3 sections of Large intestine?
Cecum, Colon, and Rectum
active in water and electrolyte absorption. secretion of some minerals. Bacterial Fermentation!
Bird esophagus =
crop (food storage)
Birds whose esophagus' produce 'milk'?
pigeons, parrots, penguins, flamingoes, pelicans
Bird stomach =
Proventriculus; release of HCl and pepsin
Ventriculus; muscular area reduces food particle size
GI tract length
terrestrial carnivores < omnivores/herbivores < marine carnivores
Types of Feeds?
Fiber, Energy, Protein/N, Mineral & Vitamin, and Additives
fresh, dried or ensiled.used to describe whole plant. includes pasture, hay and silage
forage feed. low cost. high quality.
Pasture is different from other feeds in 3 principal ways:
-must be fenced
-used while actively growing
-harvested by livestock
hay harvested and dried. reduce moisture content to 15-18% to slow enzymatic and microbial degradation during storage.
2. macerate ('super condition')
3. tedding (spread across field to dry)
6. hauling and stacking
Factors affecting forage quality?
-moisture content at baling and time of storage
-forage species (grasses v. legumes)
-stage of maturity
starches and fats. carbonaceous (all cereal grains and sorghums)
energy feed. whole seed. Barley, Wheat, Oats.
seed of cotton plant before extraction of the oil. 22-24% CP. fed to dairy cows in early lactation.
-Corn gluten meal
-Corn gluten feed
-Distiller's Dried grains
-Distiller's Wet grains
Protein/N supplements Plant origin;
soybean meal, cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, and Brewers dried grains
Protein/N supplements animal origin;
Meat and bone meal, fish meal, whey protein, and poultry meal
Urea. 45% N. Nitrogen from a source other than true protein
characterized by uneasiness, tremors, excessive salivation, rapid breathing, bloat, tetany - death.
sharp rise in blood ammonia
Increase feed efficiency by..
increasing intake, increase nutrient use, improve animal performance, reduce costs
detoxify undesirable compounds:
~Cottonseed - Gossypol
~Soybean meal - Trypsin inhibitor
~Sweet clover - Dicoumarol toxicity
~Aflatoxins - carcinogens in grains
The main form of nitrogenous end product excreted in urine by birds is:
Cellular respiration is a ____ rxn
Inefficiency in metabolic rxns is related to the production of:
Equivalence between mass and energy i.e. converting pounds to calories is a function of:
Theory of relativity
A bomb calorimeter is used to measure:
In general, proteins contain ____% nitrogen
____ is energy released as heat during digestion and metabolism above maintenance:
-Heat increment (HI)
-Specific dynamic action (SDA)
The amount of N retained as a percent of N absorbed:
The amount of N retained as a percent of N consumed:
Who invented a non-invasive device to collect urine from 'happy' cows?
Net energy is used most efficiently in the following order of efficiency:
Maintenance > Lactation > Growth
What is energy lost in fermentation and metabolic processes?
Energy is required for...
maintenance, growth, and activity
Kjeldahl technique is used to measure what in feed?
When feed is delivered to your farm, in what way should the nutrients be expressed?
Dry matter basis
Formation of carbs and fat from excess protein occurs in the...
Total mineral content is called:
The most critical information needed to formulate a ration that meets nutrient requirements for animals is:
The main storage form of carbohydrates in animals is:
Carbs with the same chemical formula but different structures are referred to as:
The chemical rxn that links 2 monosaccharides is:
The chemical rxn that is responsible for the splitting of 2 carbohydrate molecules is:
Which are non-reducing sugars?
Carbs have to be in this form to be absorbed in the small intestine
Glycogenesis, in domestic animals, occurs mainly in the:
The main storage form of lipid is:
The reduced fluctuation of glucose conc. in ruminants compared to non-ruminants is due to:
ruminants have a continuous production of VFAs
The main carbon precursor for glucose in ruminants is:
Pepsin released in the stomach during gastric secretion:
is an endopeptidase
Cholecystokinin and secretin..
cause the release of trypsinogen
18:3 fatty acid?
Formation of triglycerides by combining fatty acids with glycerol is accomplished as a result of the rxn:
removal of double bond is due to process of...
Most lipids are transported in the blood in combination with proteins as:
What carry cholesterol from cells to the liver for elimination?
lipids with hormone like activity include..
Which is the correct sequence for fat digestion and absorption?
Emulsification - micelles - brush border - chylomicron - exocytosis into lymph
the enzyme involved in the synthesis of lipids is called:
fatty acid synthetase
In proximate analysis, dietary crude protein is
estimated by measuring nitrogen content and multiplying by 6.25
The Van Soest Detergent analysis system is more accurate in estimating
Dietary fiber content
The difference between neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) is
In ruminants, heat of ______ is greater than in non-ruminants
Rank the nutrients from lowest to highest amount of metabolic water when oxidized
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats
an excess water build-up or edema is referred to as:
The procedure to accurately measure dry matter content of feeds containing high amount of volatile solubles is:
Which is the most accurate estimate of the energy value of a feed?
Forages typically have a lower energy value than concentrates because:
They are less digestible and have a greater heat increment (HI)
during growth an increase in number of cells is termed:
Hemoglobin, Cyanocobalamin and Selenoproteins are good examples of:
What is a zwitterion?
an ion that carries both a negative and a positive charge and is electrically neutral
In cattle, sheep, and pigs, time of puberty is influenced most by:
A major distinction between dogs and cats is:
dogs have a much lower protein requirement
Which enzyme converts monosaturated FA to PUFAs?
Delta 6 desaturase
a good source of arachidonic acid would be:
Which would elicit a lower inflammatory response?
a diet high in fish oil
For horses, the only amino acid with specified requirements is:
the commercial product used to determine how Alpacas regulated their energy was:
Gain in body weight(g) / Protein ingested (g)
(N absorbed - N lost in metabolism) / N absorbed X 100
N retained / N consumed X100
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