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Mock Synthesis Questions
Terms in this set (78)
What treaty helped form the civic identity of early Italian city states? And how did it?
a. The Peace of Constance, 1183
b. Forced Barbarossa to back off and gave city-states the freedom to decide for itself how it would be governed
What were two functions of Italian city gates?
a. Economic- anything coming in and out (currency) was monitored and counted
b. Defense- city states fought against each other
What are the two functions of a Piazza?
a. Civic function, legislators would gather to announce decisions to public
b. Religious function, place for people to gather and have worship services
What components of the Palazzo Pubblico typology indicate the focus on defense in Italian city-states?
b. Machicolations, arch-shaped projections at top of building (trap-door spaces)
c. High windows
What aspects of the Palazzo Pubblico reflect a city-republic?
a. Tall campanile, reflects power
b. Loggia, space for legislatures to talk and provides focal point on them
c. The closest windows to public open into government meeting spaces, officials close to public shows open government
d. Site: located at intersection of neighborhoods so that one neighborhood didn't overpower another
How did architecture in Italian city-states reflect the mythology or legacy of the city's founding? Give an example.
a. Siena, Italy
i. Palazzo Pubblico-Coat of Arms-no connection to Rome so made up story that founders of Rome traveled to Siena and clouds protected them
ii. Duomo-stone-revetment (layering of stone) matches Coat of Arms
b. Florence, Italy
i. Palazzo Pubblico-Coat of Arms, Uberti family, warning sign
How does the site plan of Florence, Italy reflect their founding?
a. Founded by Rome in 52 CE, Castrum plan
How is the location of the Palazzo Vecchio significant in relation to the city?
a. Moved off grid to account for size
b. Moved to replace the Uberti family house
What is the precedent of the Piazza della Signoria?
a. Roman domus, atrium & courtyard
What are two building techniques that Brunelleschi developed?
a. Herring-bone laid brick
b. Cantilever platforms
c. Honeycomb structure
What is the difference between the Mendicant orders that developed in Italian city-states?
What aspect of the Basilica of San Marco indicates their governmental system? How does it?
a. Bronze horses-indicates centralized power of doge
i. combined secular spoils of war with a religious building
b. The Palazzo Ducale connected to basilica-main chapel for head of Venetian gov.
i. Combined religious with secular
Why were the Venetians less focused on defense? How is this shown in their architecture?
a. Venetians confident that enemies wouldn't be able to navigate their boats through the shallow water around Venice.
i. Palazzo Ducale:
1. Located at the very front of city, first thing you see
2. 2 very open porticos at base of building
3. Crenellations for decoration but not functional
Identify one aspect of the Palazzo Ducale that reflects the site plan of Venice.
a. Used water as piazza
b. No free-standing loggia used balcony to address the people
What are three cultural characteristics associated with the Renaissance?
c. Revision of Classical Past/Re-birth of classical past
What was the tectonic style that Brunelleschi used in his architecture?
a. Plaster infill with Pietra Serena (gray stone native to Florence)
b. Perfect Geometries-perfect squares and perfect circles
What aspects of the Founding Hospital (Piazza Santissima Annunziata) reflect classical architecture?
a. Composite capitals on columns
b. Colonnade vertical supports with horizontal beam
Identify two examples of Brunelleschi architecture that weren't finished. Describe their inconsistencies.
a. Foundling Hospital
i. Roundels on façade cut off because crammed
ii. Added vertical support on the end instead of completing the colonnade
b. San Lorenzo 1421
i. Random brackets
ii. Random niche crammed
iii. Incomplete transverse arches
What was the precedent for the Founding Hospital? Why was it used?
i. Religion important in the orphan's education
ii. Houses large # of people
How did the site of the Palazzo Medici convey their political significance?
a. Located just past northernmost gate, every political giant came from the north except pope
b. Before you would get to the Duomo or Palazzo Vecchio you would pass Palazzo Medici first (would have to stop by)
What architectural aspects of the Palazzo Medici conveyed the extent of their influence?
a. Building kinks out into street so you had to acknowledge their Palazzo
b. Lower zone open because confident no one would attack them since their influence was great
c. Rustication-massive fortified stones on base of building
d. Courtyard refined and luxurious to display their class
Who were the Medici family? And why were they known as the de'facto rulers of Florence?
a. Wealthy family of bankers that had political, financial, and religious power
i. Put children as popes and bishops
b. Took charge of San Lorenzo after Florence war with Milan
What was the precedent of the Palazzo Davanzati and the Palazzo Medici? How is it used?
a. Roman Domus, commercial shops at base, single family home, 2nd floor is first living floor (piano nobile)
What was the precedent of the San Lorenzo?
What leads historians to believe that Brunelleschi might not have been the architect of the Pazzi Chapel?
a. Wall-projection out from wall, pilaster floating not structural
b. Lack of symmetry on some stuff
c. Incomplete arches
Identify the precedent of Pallazo Rucellai. What aspect did Pallazo Rucellai and its precedent share?
a. Colosseum, Rome, Italy
b. The classical orders were presented vertically
Identify 2 key concepts of Alberti's dichotomies and the meaning of each in terms of the buildings representation. What was the purpose for these dichotomies?
a. Urban or Rural
i. Urban- denser, crowded
ii. Rural- free to behave in any way, less formal, architectural approach is expressive.
b. Public or Private
i. Public- known through scale, material, architectural form conveys openness to everyone
ii. Private- closes itself off
c. They are intended to govern architecture by relaying how a building should present itself
What was Brunelleschi's reasoning for not finishing the Founding Hospital in Florence, Italy?
a. He was not getting paid enough
What aspect of the founding hospital did Brunelleschi's successor not understand in terms of the buildings representation?
a. Brunelleschi's plan to evoke harmony through symmetrical forms and the idea that the frieze was a representation of a beam.
What did the city of Venice, Italy do for resistance of high tides? What causes these tides to become worse?
a. They faced the bottom of their buildings in stone.
b. Full moon and the sirocco winds coming in from North Africa
What was the intention of the "Mose Project" in Venice, Italy?
a. The project was intended to protect the city of Venice through a mobile series of gates that deployed in the lagoon when high tides were sensed.
Why did the families of Florence, Italy have to pull their funding from the San Lorenzo project?
a. In the middle of the project the city went to war with Milan and the funds had to go towards the war.
Why was Alberti against the urban planning of the city Pienza, Italy? What did he propose in place of the ideal city plan?
a. He believed that the "ideal city plan" felt fake. He said the city itself should reflect the diversity of the buildings and the people who lived there.
b. He proposed small interventions into existent cities.
Identify the precedent of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.
a. San Miniato al Monte, Florence, Italy
What did Alberti add to Santa Maria Novella to correspond to nave elevation? What did he do to bridge the gap between the nave and aisles?
a. A temple front
b. Creates volutes to form a visual connection between temple front and aisles.
How did the works of Alberti and Michelangelo differ?
a. Alberti's work consisted of perfect geometry and was considered logical. Michelangelo's work was more experimental and interested in forms in motion.
After Constantine left Rome, what title does the pope take on? What does this title imply of his duties?
a. Pontifex (Latin for bridge-builder)
b. The pope would be in charge of the city of Rome and the church.
What does the term "Renovatio Romae" mean? Who came up with this plan and why?
a. The plan for the renovation of Rome
b. Pope Nicholas V. made up the plan, because the city was in great need of reestablishment after the fall of the Roman empire.
Before Nicholas V. the seat of the papacy was at St. John in the Lateran. Nicholas V. moved it to Saint Peters. Why was the transition of the seat of the papacy significant?
a. Saint Peter was said to be handpicked by Jesus to guide the church.
Identify the relevance of the site of Tempietto, Rome, Italy.
a. The site was associated with the place where Saint Peter was martyred on the spot in the middle of the courtyard.
What was the centralized plan meant to convey in Tempietto, Rome, Italy?
a. perfection and afterlife
Alberti believed that columns should not support arches. What architectural aspect did he incorporate into Tempio Malatestiano in place of these columns?
a. Piers (rectangular in plan)
What was the main building on the site of Campidgolio? What was the function of this building?
b. Judicial decisions were made there
What does the flat fasad of Il Gesu symbolize?
Why did they decide not to incorporate side aisles in this church?
a. The churches modesty
b. They wanted to reinforce peoples focus towards the back alter.
What two things did Borromini incorporate into the dome of San Carlo to give it monumentality?
a. coffers with a variety of shapes
b. windows all around edge of dome.
What was significant about the windows lining the edge of the dome in San Carlo?
a. Looking up at the dome from below it looked like a halo of light and the dome appeared to be levitating.
How does Scala Regia convey its importance?
a. The architecture manipulates ideas of the pope's status and power.
What two components did Bernini add to define the square space of St. Peter's?
a. The colossal colonnade in the shape of a trapezoid, and an oval form.
What makes the pallazo different in Ca D'oro, Venice, Italy in reference to typical pallazo's.
a. Typically, they are on the ground floor for commerce, but this one is usually underwater.
What was initiated in the fasad of St. Mark's library to correspond with nave elevation?
a. Two super imposed temple fronts
What were the 3 dichotomies of building function that Alberti developed? What previous work did he base them on?
a. 3 dichotomies
b. Interpreted Vitruvius
Why was the city of Corsignano renamed as? How did Alberti convey this in the architecture?
a. Corsignano renamed to Pienza after Pope Pius and the town hall small compared to massive pope palace in city. Hierarchy based on scale: Pope palace=>Bishops palace=>Cathedral=>Priest Parish=>Piazzo=>Town Hall
What was the tectonic expression of Alberti? Name an example of a building that conveys this.
a. Tectonic expression:
i. Columns should not support arches
ii. Pier should support arches
b. Alberti, San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano), Rimini, Italy, circa 1450
What was the precedent for the Alberti, Sant'Andrea, Mantua, Italy? Why did Alberti use this?
a. Precedent: Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine
b. Instead of following the early Christian basilica preferred to use piers versus columns
What was Alberti's solution to the problem of the tall nave and shorter side aisles? Name a building that demonstrates his solution.
a. Alberti created volutes to indicate the aisles shorter than nave and used a temple front to indicate the great height of nave
b. Façade of Santa Maria Novella
What was the precedent of the Santa Maria Novella? What component/s did Alberti reuse?
a. Precedent: San Miniato Al Monte, Florence, Italy
b. Reused Temple front
How was the patron of the Santa Maria Novella recognized in the façade?
a. Name on face of building and coat of arms all over frieze
What was the precedent for the Palazzo Rucellai and how does this reflect Renaissance architecture?
a. Precedent: coliseum-3 orders
b. Revision of Classical past
Why was one side of the Palazzo Rucellai left unfinished?
a. The younger brother wouldn't sell to older brother so older brother left the side looking unfinished to get back at younger brother
Why did the Medici family commission a new sacristy at San Lorenzo?
a. Florentines kicked Medici out because Medici let French invade if they could evacuate family
b. Medici rebuilt power again and controlled entire region of Tuscany and when reentering Florence went back to original church to display new power
How did Michelangelo design the new sacristy to demonstrate the new power of the Medici family?
a. Extended vertically, add section and makes coffers smaller as goes up to reflect scale
b. Adds white marble, to reference wall
How did the papacy gain control of Rome?
a. Constantine named bishop of Rome, known as Pope, Pontifex=> Urban administrator in charge of infrastructure projects
How was the year 1378 significant to the weakening of Rome?
a. Church separated between East Orthodox and the Pope in the West
b. Cardinals couldn't decide on a Pope to elect so 3 rival Popes (Rome, Avignon, Pisa)
Who returned the Papal seat to Rome and how did he renew Rome?
a. Pope Nicholas V (1447-55), Renovatio Rome
b. Moved the Papacy headquarters from S. John in the Lateran to St. Peter's Basilica, became known as the Vatican
c. Created main streets to St. Peter's, Capitoline hill (still used as civic gov.), Pope's home
What happened in 1517 that was a blow to the papacy? And how did it weaken Rome?
a. Martin Luther 95 theses against Catholic church, led to protestant reformation and the Sack of Rome in 1527
i. Spanish mercenaries destroy city based on ideals from reformation and Pope barricaded himself in Castel Sant'Angelo
How did the Papacy combat the Protestant Reformation? Name a building that is an example of their response to the Protestant Reformation.
a. Council of Trent-1545 to 1563
i. Developed decrees to address the complaints made by the Protestant Reformation
b. Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, Vignola and Della Porta, 1575, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese
How did the architecture of Il Gesù abide by the new decrees?
a. Façade very flat, no detailed friezes, reflects humility
b. No aisles, all doors entering nave
c. Axial approach directing toward the altar
d. Privileged view to focus attention
e. Wide longitudinal nave
f. Transepts tucked in
g. Massive dome over crossing with lots of light to refocus on main altar
h. Rows of chapels
Why did Cardinal Alessandro Farnese commission Il Gesù? How did he have his patronage recognized within the architecture?
a. Farnese commissioned it because wanted to prove himself worthy of Pope
b. Recognized himself by:
i. Sited on major artery in city
ii. In neighborhood of Farnese family palace
iii. Put name on frieze and last name right over main door
How was the site of the Tempietto significant? How did Bramante convey this in the architecture?
a. Where Saint Peter was believed to be martyred
b. Bramante used a centralized plan because believed saints perfected thru martyrdom and used perfect wedge proportions
How does Michelangelo differ in his architectural style from the other previous architects? Name a project that exemplifies this.
a. Didn't use perfect proportions or perfect shapes and engaged with datum of the wall
b. Laurentian Library and Campidgolio
How was Bramante's original plan of the New St. Peter's Basilica changed over time? Which architects contributed to these changes?
i. Pulls entry out a bit
ii. uses massive piers
iii. Engages in datum of wall
i. Extends façade to elongate the nave in order to adjust it to the new decrees
ii. Side chapels added
c. Bernini (and Borromini):
i. Inscription to justify Pope's position
How were Venetian homes different from other cities? Name an example.
a. Ca d'oro: Golden House
i. First floor only used for storing goods
1. Water level
ii. Unusual for courtyard since there isn't enough land for that
What was the solution Jacopo Sansovino implemented to center the triglyphs on the frieze? Name a building example.
a. Used piers at the end of the colonnade
b. Saint Marks Library, Venice, Italy, 1537
What was the solution Palladio developed for a church façade with shorter aisles than nave? What else did he incorporate from the classical past?
a. Taller temple front
b. Thermal window from the Baths of Diocletian, Thermae to let in lots of light
How did Pope Urban VIII reinforce the idea that the Papacy had religious and secular power?
a. Possesso- procession of new pope from lateran to St. Peter's and thru campidoglio
b. Commissioned canopy with winding columns believed to be on Solomon's temple
i. Sig b/c Solomon known as great secular leader and religious
How did Bernini justify Teresa of Avila sainthood in the Cornaro chapel?
a. Depicted her young and saints are believed to stay young forever
b. sculpted members of the Cornaro family as a witness to her visions
What are characteristics of baroque architecture? Name an example.
i. Highly dramatic and expressive
ii. Dynamic proportions
iii. Broader palate of materials
b. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1638-41, Bernini
i. Amoeba like shape, no technical word for shape
ii. Uses concave/convex forms
iii. Has windows at base of dome with a edge pulled out to use light and make it feel like it's levitating
How did Bernini control the focus of attention in his architecture? Name an example.
a. St. Peter's square
i. Used a keyhole shape since peter holds keys to heaven
ii. The square narrows at starts and opens as you get close to the door facilitating focus on altar
b. Scala Regia
i. Narrows as you move up and narrows scale and frame of stairs
ii. Get to very top then turn corner and keep going
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