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Exam 3 Mammalian Physiology Review
Terms in this set (70)
Transport blood under high pressure
Elastic and strong walls
Small branches of the arteries that control blood released into capillaries. They dilate and constrict and have muscular walls.
They are made up of thin and porous walls, and exchange fluid and other nutrients between the blood and interstitial fluid.
These collect blood from the capillaries and gradually merge into larger veins.
They contain a large diameter and have thin walls and transport blood back to the heart. Also known as the "blood reservoir."
Systemic circulation as related to blood pressure
120 mm Hg(Systolic)-80 mm Hg(Diastolic), and blood pressure falls as it moves through the peripheral circulation.
Pulmonary circulation as it relates to blood pressure
25 mm Hg (systolic)-8 mm Hg (diastolic) The low pressure allows O2 to be picked up by the blood in the lungs.
This method involves the stethoscope and blood pressure cuff. The cuff applies a pressure higher than the systolic pressure and the artery becomes closed off. When the cuff pressure decreases lower than systolic pressure, Korotkoff sounds can be heard.
Three principles of circulation
1. When a tissue or organ needs more blood flow, a greater supply of blood will travel to that area. (Exercise).
2. When blood is needed in other areas (exercise), blood rushes back to the heart, causing greater cardiac output. The heart beats faster because blood flow is moving at a greater rate.
3. Blood pressure can operate independently; There is a reflexive system in place to bring blood pressure back to normal.
Factors affecting circulation
Blood flow depends on the pressure gradient and resistance.
High pressure means
High blood flow
Low blood flow
Steady rate of flow through smooth vessels
Blood flows in all directions when resistance is added or when flow is high in the aorta.
Allows veins to expand with pressure and increasing blood volume
The amount of blood that can be stored
When a sudden increase or decrease in blood pressure occurs, progressive stretching of vascular walls allow normal pressure to return to the body.
The blood from systemic veins that flow into the right atrium of the heart is where this pressure stems from.
Resistance on venous pressure
This is caused by a combination of compression of the veins and gravitational pressure on the human body.
Resistance on venous system is overcome by
The venous valves and pump which are located in the legs to push blood up towards the heart.
volume reducing drugs; Reduce bodily fluids
Positive or negative inotropes
Strengthen or weaken muscular contraction (calcium, adrenaline, beta blockers)
Positive and negative chronotropes
Increase or decrease heart rate by controlling nerves to the heart or altering sinus nodal rhythmicity
Nitrous oxide (dilates) Pressors (constrict)
Erythrocytes (RBC's), Leukocytes (WBC's), thrombrocytes (Platelets), and plasma
The biconcave shape increases surface area
Reversible deformity keeps blood elastic (Better able to squeeze through small spaces)
Enzymes can metabolize glucose and form ATP
Blood filtering function of the spleen
Capillaries allow RBC's to pass through the spleen into a pulp where fragile blood cells are destroyed, digested, and reused as nutrients to make new RBC's.
RBC production sites
1st trimester: yolk sac
2nd trimester: liver mostly, also spleen and lymph nodes
Last month and after birth: Bone marrow of tibia and femur until 20 years
20yo+: Marrow of sternum, ribs, and vertebra
Proerythroblast: (1st cell), then this develops into a Basophil erythroblast (1st generation cell with a bit of hemoglobin). The cell begins to fill with hemoglobin, which shrinks the nucleus, and then the nucleus is absorbed forming a reticulocyte. The reticulocyte passes from the bone marrow to the blood capillaries.
Hypoxia occurs (decreases oxygen), which stimulates the kidneys to increase erythropoietin production. Erythropoietin receptors bind to proerythroblasts in bone marrow, which increases RBC production. This corrects Hypoxia, the kidney stops producing, and the body's RBC production is brought back to normal.
Each RBC has
300 hemoglobin molecules
windpipe that allows passage of air
Bronchi and bronchioles
conducts air into lungs
terminals of airways where gas exchange occurs
membrane covering lungs that lubricate for movements of lungs
fluid between the lungs and chest cavity
skeletal muscle along bottom of thoracic (chest) cavity
Contraction of diaphragm pulls lungs down
Diaphragm relaxes, which conpresses lungs, expelling air
Inspiration (rib cage)
Raising of rib cage expands lungs
External intercostals are the muscles that raise the rib cage
Expiration (rib cage)
Ribs depress (muscles are internal intercostals)
extent lungs will expand
Lung compliance is determined by
Elastin and collagen fibers that relax when lungs are deflated and kink when lungs are stretched, and the amount of surface tension.
Phospholipids and proteins that reduce surface tension so that it is easier for lungs to expand.
volume of air inhaled and exhaled in normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume
When inhaling at full force, the amount of air above tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume
max extra volume of air that can be exhaled by force
volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration
max amount of air a person can breathe in
tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity
amount of air that remains in lungs after normal expiration
expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
max amount that can expel from lungs after filling to the max extent and expiring to the max extent.
IRV +tidal volume + ERV
Total lung capacity
Max volume lungs can expand with the max amount of effort.
When O2 is constantly diffused into blood, CO2 is diffused out of the blood, and dry atmospheric air is humidified
6 layers of respiratory membrane
1.Surfactant lining alveolus
3.Epithelial basement membrane
4.Interstitial space between alveolus and capillary
5.Capillary basement membrane fuses in many places with alveolar basement membrane
6.Capillary endothelial membrane
Located between capillaries and alveolous
Alveolar ventilation is followed by
Diffusion of each gas through liquid across a partial pressure gradient
Partial pressure is directly proportional to
Rate of diffusion is directly proportional to
Diffusion between the capillary plexus and respiratory membrane depend on
Membrane thickness and surface area
What can reduce membrane function?
Fibrosis, pneumonia, emphysema/COPD
What drives direction of gas movement?
Kinetic movement and pressures of gas
Gas transport depends on
diffusion and blood flow
Diffusion of Oxygen
Alveoli to blood to tissue
Diffusion of CO2
Tissue to blood to alveoli
3 mechanisms of transport of CO2
7% transported in dissolved state
70% as bicarbonate ions in RBC
23% transported by Hemoglobin
An increase in CO2 in the blood causes O2 to be displaced
Binding of O2 to hemoglobin displaces CO2
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