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Unit Six: Complete Review
Terms in this set (84)
The nucleus is the "__________ _________" of the cell.
The nucleus can only be found in _____________ cells.
The nucleus contains DNA in the form of ___________.
When do chromosomes form in the nucleus?
Only during mitosis or meiosis.
What is the double membrane called that surrounds the nucleus?
The nuclear envelope.
What does the nuclear envelope have that allows larger molecules to get into the nucleus?
What does the nucleolus produce for the cell?
When does chromatin duplicate and become chromosomes?
During mitosis or meiosis.
Describe a chromosome.
Tightly packaged DNA, found only during cell division, DNA is not being used for protein synthesis.
Unwound DNA, found throughout interphase, and DNA is being used for protein synthesis.
What are nuleotides?
The building blocks of DNA.
List the nucleotide parts from outermost to innermost (left to right) (referring to a nucleotide on the left side of a DNA strand).
Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen base.
What is the shape of DNA and how many strands is it made up of?
A double helix; two strands.
The "rungs" on the DNA ladder are what?
The "backbone" of the DNA ladder is made up of what two things?
Sugar and phosphate.
What are the four nitrogen bases?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine (A,T,G,C).
A complements ______ and G complements ___.
DNA bases are listed in threes. What two words can we use to describe these sets of threes?
A DNA triplet or codon.
Nucleotides are flipped upside down, or are _______________ in DNA.
A has how many nitrogen bonds with T?
C has how many hydrogen bonds with G?
Which strand is the leading strand of a DNA pair?
The left one.
Which strand is the lagging strand of a DNA pair?
The right one.
It only works from the 3 prime end to add the new complementing nitrogen bases next to the template parent strand.
What does the Helicase break?
The hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases; it also uncoils the DNA.
Does the polymerase enzyme on the lagging side work in the same direction of the helicase?
Since polymerase works discontinuously to the helicase, what is needed to bond the okazaki fragments that form on the lagging strand of a DNA molecule?
A DNA ligase.
What does the DNA ligase do?
Binds okazaki fragments formed on the lagging strand.
Essentially, what are nucleic acids?
Chains of nulceotides.
How do nucleotides join?
The sugar of one nucleotide joins with the phosphate group of the next one and so on.
A DNA molecule is formed of two chains of nucleotides twisted into a ____________ ___________.
What binds the nitrogen bases of nucleotides together in a DNA molecule?
Chromatin is suspended in the ____________ of the nucleus.
What is the membrane that encloses the nucleus called?
A nuclear envelope.
How many lipid bilayers does the nuclear envelope have?
What allows larger molecules to enter the nucleus?
What does the nucleolus produce?
Since the sequence of the nucleotide bases vary from species to species, life has _________________.
How many chromatids are in a duplicated chromosome?
Since one strand of DNA is new, and one strand is the parent, or template strand, what do we call the replication?
How do mutations occur?
When there is an error in the copying of DNA; a permanent change in the DNA sequence.
Are all mutations dangerous?
If a mutation is harmless, what can it result in?
Helicase works from the __________ prime end to the ___________ prime end.
Why are there few to no mistakes made when DNA is replicated?
Because a template, or "parent" strand is being used, and the base-pairing rule.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
Making many copies of DNA.
After PCR has created enough DNA, what happens?
The identical copies of DNA are digested with restriction enzymes, then finally separated out through a process called gel electrophoresis.
What three steps compose the cell cycle?
Interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis.
What does an animal cell use to complete cytokinesis?
A cleavage furrow.
What does a plant cell use to complete cytokinesis?
A cell plate.
True or False: Chromatin must replicate before coiling into chromatid.
What is the term for cytoplasmic division? (Hint: it's a phase of the cell cycle)
Why does the plant cell have to use a cell plate to divide its cytoplasm?
Because it has a cell wall.
Why is an animal cell able to use a cleavage furrow to divide its cytoplasm?
Because it only has a cell membrane.
What is a cell doing during interphase?
Growing and carrying out its daily cell functions.
What are two examples of cells that are frequently performing mitosis?
Hair follicles and skin cells.
From what kind of organism do restriction enzymes originate?
Where do restriction enzymes cut DNA?
At specific restriction sites.
During gel electrophoresis, DNA is injected into wells made in the agarose gel. Once at this stage, what is used to separate the DNA molecules by size?
DNA is _____________ charged, so it moves to areas of ______________ charge.
A tool to identify a genome (DNA Sequence) or compare genomes to known samples.
What sized DNA molecules will travel the fastest during Gel Electrophoresis?
The smaller ones.
What is agarose made from, and what kind of charge does it have?
Made from seaweed; it has a neutral charge.
After being set in the agarose, what do scientists do to DNA to complete the process of gel electrophoresis?
They stain the DNA to be able to see the DNA bands.
What are the four steps of gel electrophoresis?
1) DNA is cut into smaller fragments using a restriction enzyme. 2) The negative DNA molecule is attracted to the positive electrode. 3) The smallest fragments move the greatest distance and largest move the least distance. 4) A DNA stain (dye) is used to slow the movements of the different size DNA fragments.
What phase of the cell cycle is the cell in the longest?
What are the three major stages of interphase?
Gap 1, synthesis, and Gap 2.
What does the cell do during Gap 1 of interphase?
Grows, and doubles amount of organelles.
What does the cell do during synthesis (of interphase)?
It replicates its DNA.
What does the cell do during Gap 2 of interphase?
Chromosomes begin to condense.
What divides first, the nucleus or cytoplasm?
The nucleus, in a process called mitosis.
What is it called when the cytoplasm divides?
What are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
What happens during prophase?
The chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
What happens during metaphase?
Chromosomes go to the middle of the cell.
What happens during anaphase?
The chromosomes separate genetic material.
What happens during telophase?
The chromosomes uncoil and complete mitosis.
What happens during cytokinesis?
The cytoplasm divides and the cell cycle is complete.
What do animal cells use to perform cytokinesis that pinches the cell membrane until it separates into two new cells?
A cleavage furrow.
What do plant cell have to use to perform cytokinesis because of their rigid cell wall?
A cell plate.
Certain restriction enzymes cut DNA so that there are "_____________ _______" allowing DNA from different sources to combine using the base-pair rule.
What is a polymerase chain reaction used for?
To mass-produce a particular sequence/section of DNA.
The __________ a DNA fragment, the quicker it will move to the positive electric charge during gel electrophoresis.
Since fragments of the same size move at the same speed, they form _________ in the gel during gel electrophoresis.
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