IB Chemistry: Acids and Bases
Terms in this set (24)
Substances which can act as both proton donors and acceptors.
Acid + Base
Salt + Water
Acid + Metal
Salt + Hydrogen
2HCl + Mg -> MgCl2 + H2
Acid + Carbonate
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Acid + Metal Hydrogen carbonates
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
One mole of the substance producers one mole of hydrogen ions
One mole of the substance producers two or more mole of hydrogen ions.
Diprotic and Triprotic
Completely dissociates into an aqueous solution of its ions.
Only slightly dissociate into an aqueous solution of its ions. Equilibrium lies to the left.
Distinguish between Strong and Weak Acid/Base
pH measurement: Since strong acid produce more H+ ions, they would have a lower pH than weak acids. Similarly, strong bases would have a higher pH than weak bases.
Conductivity measurement: Strong acid/base are more conductive than their weak counterpart as they contain more ions
Concentration measurement: Since concentration of H+, reactions would have a higher rate of reaction.
The process by which acid-forming pollutants are deposited on the earth's surface.
Pure rain water is pH of 5.65, which is due to presence of CO2. This is NOT acid rain as that is lower than a pH of 5.6
Acid Deposition: Vegetation
Increased acidity in the soil leaches important nutrients such as Ca, Mg and K.
Reduction of Mg2+ can cause reduction of chlorophyll, which lowers photosynthesis.
Addition of Al3+ damages the roots and prevents the roots from taking sufficient water and nutrients to survive. This causes stunned growth, thinning and yellowing.
Acid Deposition: Lakes and Rivers
Increased levels of Al in water can kill fish. Aquatic life is also highly sensitive to pH, as animals start dying from a pH of 6 and lakes are effectively dead at a pH of 4.
Acid Deposition: Buildings
Calcium Carbonate in marble is eroded by acid rain. Acid rain contains sulfuric acid which reacts with the calcium carbonate. This reaction produces calcium sulfate which washes away with rain water exposing more stone for erosion.
Acid Deposition: Human Health
NOx and SOx dissolve in water to create their respective acids which increase chance of respiratory illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. Cu2+ and Pb2+ from pipe erosion can be linked to Alzheimer's.
Ionic Product of Water
The dissociation of water into its ions is an endothermic process, therefore the value of Kw will increase with temperature.
Kw = Ka * Kb
If the salt is composed of a weak base and a strong acid, the conjugate of the weak acid will hydrolyze with water and form OH- ions.
If the salt is composed of a strong base and a weak acid, the conjugate of the weak acid will hydrolyze with water and produce H+ ions.
Resist changes in pH when SMALL amounts of acid or alkali are added.
Can be made by mixing a weak acid with the salt of that acid + strong base.
Therefore, reacting NaOH with a excess CH3COOH will produce
NaCH3COO (Salt of weak acid and strong base)
Excess CH3COOH (weak acid)
Strong Acid-Strong Base Titration
Strong Acid-Weak Base Titration
Weak Acid-Strong Base Titration