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Chapter 16 key terms
Terms in this set (67)
Type of cell signalling where signals released by one cell type can travel long distances to target cells of another cell type.
local cell-cell signaling in which a molecule released by one cell acts on a neighboring target cell.
the target cell is also the secreting cell
hydrophobic and can cross the cell membrane and derivatives of cholesterol
the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
a steroid produced by the adrenal gland that acts to stimulate production of glucose
steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that acts on the kidney to regulate salt and water balance
insect hormone that triggers metamorphosis
steroid hormones in plants that have a variety of effects, including cell elongation, retarding leaf abscission, and promoting xylem differentiation.
hormone synthesized from tyrosine in the thyroid gland
vitamin that regulates calcium metabolism and bone growth by stimulating the activity of a member of the nuclear receptor super family
signaling molecule synthesized from vitamin A
nuclear receptor superfamily
A family of transcription factors that recognizes nuclear localization signals and mediates transport across the nuclear envelope; includes the receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3.
Major intracellular target of NO. Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP
guanosine monophosphate in which the phosphate group is covalently bound to both the 3' and 5' carbon atoms, forming a cyclic structure and an important second messenger in the response of cells to a variety of hormones, and in vision
a compound whose metabolism is modified as a result of a ligand-receptor interaction; it functions as a signal transducer by regulating other intracellular processes
a small hydrophillic molecule that carries a signal from a stimulated neuron to a target cell at a synapse
a signaling molecule composed of amino acids
a peptide signaling molecule secreted by neurons
a neuropeptide that act as a natural analgesic
neuropeptide "morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
peptides that are secreted by neurons and act on distant cells
polypeptide that controls animal cell growth and differentiation
nerve growth factor (NGF)
polypeptide growth factor that regulates the development and survival of neurons
member of a family of polypeptides that regulates neuron development and survival
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
A growth factor that stimulates cell proliferation.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
A growth factor released by platelets during blood clotting to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts.
growth factor that regulates blood cells and lymphocytes
membrane-anchored growth factors
growth factor associated with the plasma membrane that functions as a signaling molecule during cell-cell contact
class of lipids, including prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, that act in autocrine and paracrine signaling
family of eicosanoid lipids involved in signaling inflamation
eicosanoid formed from prostaglandin H2
eicosanoid involved in blood clotting
eicosanoid synthesized from arachidonic acid
member of a group of small molecules that coordinate the responses of plant tissues to environmental signals
Plant hormone that allows plants to grow bigger
plant hormone that induced plant cell elongation by weakening the cell wall. Also regulate many other aspects of plant development such as cell division and differentiation. (gene expression)
plant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
Plant hormones that stimulate cell division and cytokinesis
A plant hormone that brings about dormancy in buds, mantains dormancy in seeds, and brings about stomatal closing, among other effects.
intracellular signal transduction
chain of reactions that transmits chemical signals from the cell surface to their intracellular targets
family of cell signaling proteins regulated by guanine nucleotide binding
G-protein coupled receptors
receptor characterized by seven membrane spanning alpha helices. Ligand binding causes a conformational change that activates a G protein
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
adenosine monophosphate in which the phosphate group is covalently bound to both the 3' and 5' carbon atoms, forming a cyclic structure and an important second messenger in the response of cells to a variety of hormones
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal.
Heterotrimeric G proteins
guanine nucleotide-binding protein consisting of three subunits
enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)
A protein kinase (also called protein kinase A) regulated by cyclic AMP.
protein kinase A
A protein kinase (also called cAMP-dependent protein kinase) regulated by cyclic AMP.
cAMP response element (CRE)
A regulatory sequence that mediates the transcriptional response of target genes to cAMP
Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. A transcription factor that is activated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
g protein coupled photoreceptor in retinal rod cells that activates transducin in response to light absorption
The G-protein that couples rhodopsin to the enzyme phosphodiesterase in rod photoreceptors
Enzyme that breaks down cGMP, cells hyperpolarize. Turned on by transducin
enzyme that phosphorylates target proteins on tyrosines
receptor tyrosine kinases
A receptor protein spanning the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein.
A reaction in which a protein kinase catalyzes its own phosphorylation.
A protein domain of approximately 100 amino acids that binds phosphotyrosine-containing peptides.
Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
intracellular tyrosine kinase
cytokine receptor superfamily
A family of cell surface receptors that act by stimulating the activity of intracellular tyrosine kinases.
Phospholipase C (PLC)
enzyme that hydrolyzes PIP2 to form the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate
a second messenger formed from the hydrolysis of PIP2 that activates protein kinase C
Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)
second messenger formed from the hydrolysis of PIP2 that signals the release of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum
protein kinase C
Member of a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated by diacylglycerol and Ca2+ and function in intracellular signal transduction.
calcium binding protein
A member of a family of protein kinases that are activated by the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin.
A type of calcium channel in muscle and nerve cells that opens in response to changes in membrane potential.
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