Module 9 PK
Terms in this set (121)
harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck down to its shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse drawn plows and vehicles
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans.
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn; generally characterized by hot/ warm temperatures year round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. Temperature zones north and south of the tropics generally have a winter season
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling land masses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters
Characteristic cargo and passenger ships of the Arabian Sea.
a series of waterways that linked major rigers
a curved metal blade in a plow that turns the earth over;allows for deeper turning of the soil
The time when Western Europeans learned and adapted certain agricultural techniques that greatly increased crop production
Believed to be a huge source of Africanity; describes the path Bantu took when they migrated from west Africa to South Africa, spreading agriculture techniques and Bantu culture
A cubical shrine with idols inside in Mecca built by Abraham
Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Arabic word for God
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who "submits" (in Arabic, Islam means "submission") to the will of God
-Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran.
-Islam calls on all people to recognize one creator god—Allah—who rewards or punishes believers after death according to how they led their lives.
The community of all Muslims
-Five rules all Muslims must follow
1. Avowal that there is only one god and Muhammad is his messenger
2. Prayer five times a day
3. Fasting during the lunar month of Ramadan
4. Paying alms
5. Making the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during one's lifetime
book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632; sacred text of Islamic faith
-Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendent of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali
-Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran
-Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership
-The majority religion in most Islamic countries
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roma Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands
-Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty
-It was a prominent part of medieval Christianity and Buddhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe.
Benedict of Nursia
-The person most responsible for introducing the (originally Egyptian) practice of groups of monks or nuns living together in organized communities into the Latin west
-Wrote the Rule of Benedict (envisioned a balanced life of devotion and work, along with obligations of celibacy, poverty, and obedience to the abbot)
Regular vs. Secular Clergy
Regular: Those who lived by the Rule of Benedict (envisioned a balanced life of devotion and work, along with obligations of celibacy, poverty, and obedience to the abbot) and other monastic rules
Secular: Priests who lived in society instead of in seclusion and did not follow a formal code of regulations
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions also have pilgrimage traditions, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and the pilgrimages made by early Chinese Buddhists to India in search of sacred Buddhist writings
Venetian traveler who explored China in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson) for 17 years
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Fleet of ships organized by Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty for the first of the Ming expeditions.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina (Yathrib)
Islamic holy houses (place of worship)
A man who calls Muslims to prayer from the minaret of a mosque
A distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship
-special religious tax
-third pillar of Islam
A month in the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset.
-A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
-fifth pillar of Islam
Muhammad's example for proper living
-the system of Islamic law, based on the Qu'ran
-regulated the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims
Seal of the Prophets
Name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet of God
People of the Book
-what Muslims called Christians and Jews because they adhered to a written religious code and were monotheistic
-seen as higher than polytheistic people in Muslims' eyes
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites; Muhammad's son-in-law
The branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.
People who practiced self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality
Islamic religious scholars; "people with religious knowledge"
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Islamic states in northern India adapted mathematics from the people they conquered, using their Hindi numerals, which Europeans later called "Arabic numerals"
Islamic scholar who studied and improved upon the cosmological model of Ptolemy
A major branch of Buddhism that allowed a great deal of variance from Buddha's original teachings
Seventh-century Chinese monk who made a famous trip to India to collect Buddhist texts
- From 500 to 1000 CE
- Many aspects of the Roman civilization were lost, such as written language, advanced architectural and building techniques, complex government, and access to long distance trade
- These early people of Europe couldn't read or write and lived as their nomadic ancestors had
Constantine claimed to have divine favor for his rule and instituted a policy where the emperor ruled as both secular lord and religious leader
An order of wandering priests known for their vows of poverty and ability to relate to peasants
An order of wandering priests which were a more scholarly order who ministered more to educational needs
Men who devote their time to praying, studying, and copying, and decorating holy books by hand
Monastery: a retreat from civilization that was inhabited by monks
Convent: for nuns
— refuge for those in trouble
— communication to the central church hierarchy
— centers of scholarship, education, and libraries
A set of cultural characteristics (including language) that are shared on the continent of Africa, such as music, the use of masks, and scarification
Permanent beauty etchings on the skin that was popular in the culture of the Bantu-speaking peoples
A caravan city in western Arabia that was the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and ritual center of Islam.
Agricultural city in western Arabia to which Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
The title for the ruler of a caliphate meaning "successor," which originally referred to Abu Bakr.
The father of Muhammad's favorite wife A'isha and one of Muhammad's earliest followers, who was chosen to be his successor. He continued and confirmed Muhammad's Five Pillars of Islam.
The office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule to the Islamic empire; also the empire's name.
(661-750) The first hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs who ruled at Damascus over their empire extending from Spain to India. They were overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
A family of rulers whose military effectiveness was key in their rise, first as protectors of the Frankish kings, then as kings under Charlemagne's father Pepin, and finally as emperors under Charlemagne.
A Carolingian who ruled a kingdom encompassing Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. After rescuing the Pope, he was crowned as "Holy Roman Emperor," uniting church and state. His economic system, based on landed wealth and a brief intellectual revival, provided a common heritage among the succeeding kingdoms of France, Burgundy, and Germany.
(Swedes) Vikings who pursued raiding and trading interests and eventually the building of kingdoms along the rivers of eastern Europe and Russia.
William the Conqueror
The duke of Normandy who ended Anglo-Saxon domination of England by invading in 1066.
A system in which kings and lords gave land to "vassals" in return for sworn military support. It was an oversimplification of many agreements that differed from one place or time to another.
In medieval Europe, landholdings granted in return for a sworn oath to provide military service.
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter committed to rendering military service to a king or lord.
Holy Roman Empire
(962-1806) A loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by princes.
(1095-1204) Four religiously-inspired Christian military campaigns to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. They ended western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation by bringing back ideas, artistic styles, and industrial processes from Byzantium and Islamic lands. The First Crusade led to the conquer of Jerusalem and the establishment of four Crusader principalities. The Second and Third Crusades had mixed success in protecting those states. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sack of Constantinople as urged by the Venetians.
Battle of Manzikert
(1071) A Seljuk army defeated Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV, leading to the spread of Turkish nomads and the deterioration of security along the Christian pilgrimage route through Anatolia.
Pope Urban II
In 1095, he called for ceased hostilities between Christians and called them to go fight the Muslims in the Holy Land, exclaiming "Deus vult!" (God wills it!). Soon after began the First Crusade.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
(1122-1024) One of the most influential women of the crusading era who accompanied her husband, King Louis VII of France, on the Second Crusade and visited her uncle and ruler of Antioch, Prince Raymond. With a lack of offspring, she annulled her marriage and wed Henry of Anjou, who become English King Henry II. Her sons were Richard the Lion-Heart and John, who rebelled and eventually became King of England.
Richard the Lionhearted
Richard the Lion-Heart was known as the chivalrous foe of Saladin during the Third Crusade.
A Mongol khan who unified the clans, accepted the title of Genghis Khan, and led the Mongols to conquer most of Asia and clear the way for China's eventual defeat. He is recognized as a talented military leader and his sons continued his conquests.
Mentioned as early as the Tang Empire, nomadic peoples who lived in Northern Eurasia
Chinggis Khan (Ghengis)
The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols, meaning "oceanic" or "universal leader."
Chinggis's son who became the Great Khan in 1227 following his father's death. He destroyed the Tanggut and Jin, putting their territories under Mongol governors, and by 1234, he controlled mostof northern China and threatened the Southern Song.
Chinggis's grandson who took control of towns along the Volga River and conquered Kievan Russia, Moscow, Poland, and Hungary in a five-year campaign.
The capital of Ögödei's empire.
Along with the Golden Horde in Russia, one of the subordinate domains in Central Asia under Ögödei's rule.
Following Ögödei's death, Mongol unity eroded and war broke out between Chinggis's sons and Khublai who declared himself the Great Khan in 1260.
The empire created by Khublilai who moved his court to the old Jin capital of modern Beijing.
Brother of Khubilai who founded the Il-Khan Empire of Iran.
Battle of Ain Jalut
A decisive victory for the Mamluk Sultanate whose war techniques matched the supreme cavalry techniques of the opposing Mongol forces.
Adviser to the Ilk-Khan ruler Ghazan who converted him to Islam, attempted the first history of the world, and believed that government should be in accord with the moral principles of the majority.
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Shi'ite mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.
(1206-1526) A centralized north Indian empire created by Muslim invaders which developed extensive new water-control systems.
The ruler of the West African empire of Mali who passed through Egypt on his lavish pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324. His father Muhammad sent out two large expeditions across the ocean which both never returned.
Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean during the time of Columbus.
Following the Minamoto's clan seize of power, a military leader who ruled in place of the emperor.
The Japanese elites
Professional warriors who swore loyalty to daimyos.
The warrior's code which samurai lived by.
A bushido practice involving suicide by disembowelment if a samurai failed their master(s).
The Japanese clan which seized power and installer their leader as shogun over Japan.
People from Scandinavia who invaded many areas of Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries.
Following the vikings, people who invaded Europe during the late 9th century.
Originally the Eastern Roman Empire, the powerful Christian empire which survived for almost a millennium after the fall of Western Rome, but came under pressure from Islamic Turks during the 11th century and fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
A Germanic group that controlled much of modern France by the 5th century when their leader Clovis wiped out the remains of Roman authority after their fall in 476. Pressured by his wife, Clovis converted to Christianity and Frankish conquests were done in the name of Jesus; his bloodline would lead to Charlemagne.
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), out- buildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
A strong smelling sauce that became a staple in cuisine and trade in Rome. Made by crushing fish and their entrails in a small amount of brine. The salt prevented the garum from spoiling. Garum was mostly a method for not paying the salt tax.
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning "shores."
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times.
-in western India
-prospered from the expanding trade of the Arabian Sea and the rise of the Delhi Sultanate.
-Blessed with a rich agricultural hinterland and a long coast- line
- prospered from increased commercial interaction with Delhi's ruling class.
-much more in the book, page 389
prospered from locally woven cotton textiles and locally grown grains and spices. They also served as clearing-houses for the long-distance trade of the Indian Ocean.
grown from an obscure fishing village into an important port through a series of astute alliances.
Places where goods are stored or deposited and from which they are distributed
Flying Money (Cash)
Letters of credit
- Paper money as an alternative to coins
- used by the Chinese
A practice that gave middlemen the responsibility of collecting taxes
- led to corruption
- established by the Mongols
Western European towns connected to the long-distance trade routes, the learned to use financial innovations such as banks and bills of exchange
Trade associations for craftsmen particular craft
A commercial and defensive confederation founded by north German towns and German merchant communities to protect their mutual trading interests and guilds
A roadside inn where travelers could rest from their journey
Poll tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire
A agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord
- in medieval Europe
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