Occurs in the legs as a result of venous stasis, edema, and vascular trauma.
Sequence of events is edema, erythema, pruritus, scaling, petechiae, hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations.
Elevate legs as often as possible.
Avoid wearing tight clothes and standing for long periods.
Infections: Administer antibiotics.
Chronic lesions with ulceration: Apply moist dressings, external compression garments, and vein ablation surgery
Chronic skin inflammation involving the scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, nasolabial folds, axillae, chest, and back; periods of remissions and exacerbations
In infants: Cradle cap
Clinical manifestations: Greasy, scaly, white, or yellowish plaques
Mild cases: Shampoos containing sulfur, salicylic acid, or tar
Ketoconazole with topical calcineurin inhibitors
Corticosteroid applications: To treat severe symptoms but not for maintenance therapy
Is a chronic, relapsing, proliferative skin disorder.
Is a T-cell autoimmune-mediated skin disease.
Manifestations: Scaly, thick, silvery, and elevated lesions, usually on the scalp, elbows, or knees.
Dermal and epidermal thickening is evident.
Epidermal turnover goes from 26 to 30 days to 3 to 4 days.
Cells do not have time to mature or keratinize.
Plaque psoriasis: Is most common.
Inverse psoriasis: Is rare.
Guttate psoriasis: Is more common in children.
Pustular psoriasis: Develops pus.
Erythrodermic psoriasis: Is an exfoliative dermatitis characterized by widespread red, scaling lesions.
Systemic complications: Arthritis and cardiovascular disease.
Maintain skin moisture, and reduce itching.
Mild lesions: Apply emollients, keratolytic agents, and corticosteroids.
Moderate lesions: Use ultraviolet B (UVB) light, tar preparations, or a combination; administer methotrexate, cyclosporine A, and acitretin.
Treat with photosensitizing agents and oral psoralen with UVA light
Administer tumor necrotizing factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers (adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab)
Administer interleukin (IL) 12 and 23 (IL-12/IL-23) inhibitors
Administer Vitamin D3 (calcitriol) reduces epidermal proliferation
Benign, autoinflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes
Unknown origin; involvement of T cells, adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines, and antigen-presenting cells
Lesions: Nonscaling papular violet-colored with pruritis on wrists, ankles, lower legs, and genitalia
Topical, intralesional, or systemic corticosteroids (second-line treatment for resistant lichen planus)
Systemic acitretin with or without adjuvant light therapy
Antihistamines: For itching
Topical or systemic corticosteroids: To control inflammation
Short-term systemic glucocorticoids: To treat severe oral lesions or lichen planus involving three or more nails
Potent topical steroids, topical retinoids, and systemic glucocorticoids: To treat mucous membrane lesions
Cause: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
Initial infection with varicella, followed years later by herpes zoster
Pain and paresthesia localized to a dermatome, followed by vesicular eruptions along a facial, cervical, or thoracic lumbar dermatome
No cure: Compresses, calamine lotion, or baking soda
Antiviral drugs: Administration within the first 72 hours
Topical lidocaine patch, anticonvulsant medication, controlled-release narcotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and topical capsaicin
Is caused by Candida albicans.
Is normally found on the skin, in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and in the vagina.
C. albicans can change from a commensal organism to a pathogen.
Local environment of moisture and warmth, systemic administration of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, Cushing disease, debilitated states, age younger than 6 months, immunosuppression, and neoplastic diseases
Clinical manifestations: Thin-walled pustule that produces a whitish-yellow, curdlike substance
Treatment: Topical antifungal medication