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A simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus
When a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus, it loses its ability to bring about a conditioned resopnse
A person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguisehed
People are taught relaxation techniques and then, when they are relaxed, they are exposed gradually to the stimulus they fear
A pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear
People and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others because of the results of what they do
The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
Reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of an organism; examples: food, water, and adequate warmth
Must be learned; acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers; examples: money, attention, and social approval
A way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity
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