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25 terms

Classical and Operant Conditioning

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Conditioning
A type of learning that involved stimulus-response connections
Classical Conditioning
A simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
Unconditioned Response
Automatic response
Conditioned Response
Learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless
Conditioned Stimulus
Learned stimulus
Taste Aversion
Learned avoidance of a particular food
Extinction
When a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus, it loses its ability to bring about a conditioned resopnse
Spontaneous Recovery
Organisms sometimes display responses that were extinguished earlier
Generalization
Responding in the same way to stimuli that seem to be similar
Discrimination
The act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
Flooding
A person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguisehed
Systematic Desensitization
People are taught relaxation techniques and then, when they are relaxed, they are exposed gradually to the stimulus they fear
Counterconditiong
A pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear
Operant Conditioning
People and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others because of the results of what they do
Reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
Primary Reinforcers
Reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of an organism; examples: food, water, and adequate warmth
Secondary Reinforcers
Must be learned; acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers; examples: money, attention, and social approval
Positive Reinforcers
Increase the frequency of the behavior that follow when they are applied
Negative Reinforcers
Increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed
Schedule of Reinforcement
When and how often the reinforcement occurs
Continuous Reinforcement
The reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
Partial Reinforcement
A behavior is not reinforced every time it occurs; last longer
Shaping
A way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity
Chaining
Each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved