AP Gov. Chapter 2 Study Information
Terms in this set (39)
Order of Taxes/Acts on the Colonists
-sugar stamped quarters
-stamps gone(repealed 1766), Splenda(sugar act revised 1766), towns(townshend act 1767),tea(tea act 1773) addiction is intolerable(coercive/intolerable acts 1774)
Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty
-Colonists, many from New England, outraged by taxes
-Leaders: Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry (Sons)
-Women formed Daughters of Liberty
---Protests against Stamp Act were violent
---Riots, often led by SoL, broke out
---Especially violent in Boston, colonial governors' home burned by mob,British tax collectors were threatened
Stamp Act Congress
-1765, 9/13 colonies sent representatives to meeting in NYC, list of crown violations of the colonists' fundamental rights was drafted.
-Did not help
Following the enactment of the Townshend Acts(taxes on many common imports, including tea)
On March 5, 1770 English troops open fired on a mob in front of the Boston Customs House. Five colonists.
-The boycott was organized by the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
-Following this conflict, all duties except those on tea were lifted
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
-By 1774, twelve colonies had formed committees
Boston Tea Party
After the enactment of the Tea Act
-demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
The First Continental Congress
(September 5 to October 26, 1774) 56 delegates from 12 colonies (not Georgia) sent representatives to Philadelphia to decide on action, if any, against Britain should be taken. They decided on boycotting all British goods as a reasonable response to the Massachusetts Acts
-Oppose Coercive/Intolerable Acts
-Boycott British goods
-drafted a Declaration of Rights and Resolves (colonial rights of petition and assembly, trial by peers, freedom from a standing army and the selection of representative councils to levy taxes)
The Second Continental Congress
King George refused to yield to prior requests. Before SCC could meet fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord ("Shot heard 'round the world")
-SCC convened on May 10, 1775
-Olive Branch Petition on July 5, 1775
-George Washington appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the colonists that it was time to become independent.
Virginia's Part in the Call for Independence
-May 15, 1776 Virginia first colony to call for independence
-June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia rose to move for a call for independence with the formation of foreign alliances and the preparation of a plan of confederation
The Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson ("red haired wonder")
-July 2, 1776, 12/13 (not new york) voted for independence
DoI based heavily on John Locke's philosophies (locke had written SC first constitution
Problems with the Articles of Confederation
-On the subject of economy every state had different social needs, it's own way of weighing out and proportioning, and even their own way of applying and enforcing those things. Again it resulted in midunderstandings and quarrels on which was more important. And sadly the articles had no clarification on how to overcome the differences so as a result naturally two parties emerged to war against each other, even up until modern times., -No President, No judges, State to State problems, No Army, No currency, 9/13 to pass a law (super majority), 13/13 to Amend (unanimous)
-The Articles of Confederation Sucked because the feds were too weak
This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes (because they had not received the money they were promised by the government from the revolutionary war)
Charles A. Beard
Published in 1913, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, authored by Beard, criticized the founders in Philadelphia as having selfish economic interest in the outcome of the ratification of the Constitution. His thesis did bring a sense of proportion to the beliefs of the founders, but subsequent documentation refuted many of his charges.
-"an economic document drawn with superb skill by men whose property interests were immediately at stake"
The Anti-Federalists (1961) Posited that while the Constitution's supporters might not have been the united group of creditors suggested by Beard, they were wealthier, came from higher social strata, and had greater concern for maintaining the prevailing social order than the general public.
Gordon S. Wood
The Creation of the American Republic. 1969- Wood de-emphasized economics to argue that major social divisions explained different groups' support for (or opposition to) the new Constitution.
The Virginia Plan
A strong national legislature with two chambers, the lower chamber to be chose by the people and the upper chamber to be chose by the lower. A strong national executive to be chose by the legislature, and a national judiciary to be chose by legislature.
The New Jersey Plan
-Strengthening the Articles of Confederation, not replacing them
-Unicameral legislature with one vote for each state with representatives chosen by the state legislatures
-Giving Congress the power to raise revenue from duties on imports and from a postal service
-Creating a Supreme Court with members appointed for life by the executive officers.
The Great Compromise
-In one house, there would be representatives directly elected by the people, the number of representative based on population
-That house should have the power to originate all bills for raising and spending money
-In the second house, each state should have an equal vote and representatives would be chosen by the state legislature
-In the division of power between the nation and state governments, national power would be supreme
A compromise between Northern and Southern states that broke the deadlock over how slaves should be counted for purposes of representation. Three-Fifths of slaves would be included in population totals, benefiting Southern states that had the largest concentration of slaves by inflating their representation in the House of Representatives.
1689-1755 France; His ideas provided much of the foundation for the American Constitution.he advocated distinct functions for each branch of government, called separation of powers, with a system of checks and balances between each branch
A system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments. This system (in the United States) was based on the principal that the federal, or national government derived its power from the citizens, not the states,as the national government had done under the Articles of Confederation.
Opponents of this system (in the United States) feared that a strong national government would infringe on their liberty.
Separation of Powers
1. Three distinct branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial
2.Three separately staffed branches of government to exercise these functions
3. Constitutional equality and independence of each branch
Marbury v. Madison
Established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
17 powers granted to Congress under Article 1: taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and authority to provide for a nation defense
Necessary and proper clause
Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 of the Constitution that gives Congress the power to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers specifically delegated to it by the Constitution. It is also known as the "elastic clause" because of the vagueness of the phrase "necessary and proper."
Powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers.
full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article IV, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
Article VI of the Constitution providing that the Constitution and all laws made thereunder (now also including Supreme Court decisions) are the supreme law of the land and that judges in every state shall be bound thereby.
Separation of church and state
Idea that the government and religion should be separate, and not interfere in each other's affairs. In the United States, this idea is based on the First Amendment to the US Constitution, which states that the government cannot make any laws to establish a state religion or prohibit the free exercise of religion.
Procedure for ratification
Article VII, 9/13 states (super-majority) 2/3 would have to agree to, or ratify, the constitutions new provisions before a bill would become the supreme law of the land.
Those who favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed U.s. Constitution; later became the first U.S. political party.
Those who favored a strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
The Federalist Papers
A series of eighty-five essays by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that argued for the ratification of the Constitution. These essays suggested that the three separate branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial) would prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. The essays were largely successful at convincing skeptical delegates to ratify the Constitution (although the promised Bill of Rights helped too!).
Noted the these enumerated rights are not inclusive, meaning they are not the only rights to be enjoyed by the people, and the Tenth Amendment states that powers not given to the national government are reserved by the states or the people.
Methods of Proposing a Constitutional Amendment
1.a vote of 2/3 of the members in both houses of Congress
2. a vote of 2/3 of the state legislatures specifically requesting Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments (has never been used)
Methods of Ratification a Constitutional Amendment
1.By legislatures in 3/4 of the states
2.By conventions in 3/4 of the states (only done once, 21 amendment)
Texas v. Johnson
A 1989 case in which the Supreme Court struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.