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Diabetes

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What is diabetes?
Diabetes is disease that causes the body to either not produce insulin or not react properly to the insulin. There are two types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is when the body simply does not produce insulin. This type develops in teens and is less common than Type 2. When you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system turns on the pancreas, causing it not to produce insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to get too high. People with Type 1 take insulin injections to help regulate their blood glucose levels.
Type 2 diabetes is when the cells in the body do not react properly with the insulin being produced. The signal to the GLUT4 is never sent from the receptors, so the cells don't allow glucose to enter. Insulin injections can sometimes help people with Type 2, however they usually can only watch what they eat and be careful to exercise a certain amount.
How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes?
The GTT is usually administered after an abnormal urine test. Doctors use glucose tolerance testing to monitor the amount of glucose in the patient's blood at a given moment in time and to see if their body reacts properly in response to the glucose. If the glucose levels rise drastically and don't fall back down this indicates that there is a high chance that the patient has diabetes. The insulin test can determine the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes; if the levels of insulin in the blood are high, the patient has Type 2 diabetes, and if there is no insulin in the blood the patient has Type 1.
How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin?
In type one diabetes the persons immune system attacks the pancreas causing it to shut down insulin production, leaving the person without insulin. This makes cells unable to open up and utilise the glucose in the blood. If there is no insulin being produced, there is none to use and the cells have to find alternative ways to produce energy.
In type two diabetes the person's insulin receptors become deformed for some reason making the produced insulin incompatible with the deformed insulin receptors in cells. This prevents the cells from using the glucose in the blood. If the insulin does not match the receptors then the body can't use the glucose as energy.
What is the relationship between insulin and glucose?
Insulin is released from the pancreas to the receptors in the cell, which sends signals to the GLUT4 protein to allow the glucose into the cell. If no insulin is present, or the insulin does not work with the receptors, the glucose cannot enter the cell and the cell has to find a different way to get the energy it needs.
How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells?
When you intake food your body breaks down the sugar to produce energy. Which then the pancreas releases Insulin . The insulin helps the movement of glucose into the body allowing GLUT4 to come out of the cell through the receptor .
Why are feedback loops important? What is the difference between a negative and a positive feedback loop?
Feedback loops are important because it regulates important functions of the body that helps control your body temperature and keeps it balanced. A positive loop is when something happens to cause one thing then it creaters a greater effect.So the input causes the reaction to increase. A negative feedback input causes the reaction to decrease. By one thing creating a greater harm by having less of the reaction.
Describe a feedback loop in the human body?
Feedback loops regulate many functions of the body such as the control of body temperature, heart rate, and the concentration of sugar in the blood. Feedback loops can either be positive or negative. For example, blood sugar is regulated by a negative feedback loop because when blood sugar drops the body works to restore blood sugar levels back to normal and regain homeostasis.
How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose?
The body regulates the level of blood glucose through a negative feedback loop. If blood sugar drops then glucagon is released into the blood from the stimulation of alpha cells in the pancreas. Then, the liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into the blood and blood glucose level rises to the set point and the stimulus for glucagon release diminishes. When blood sugar rises insulin is released into the blood from the stimulation of the beta cells in the pancreas. As a result, either the body cells take up more glucose or the liver and muscles take up glucose and store it as glycogen. Blood glucose levels then decline to a set point and the stimulus for insulin release diminishes.
What are the main nutrients found in food?
The main nutrients found in food are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
How can carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins be detected in foods?
Carbohydrates/glucose can be detected in foods by using the Benedicts test. In that test, the food is put into a test tube, some drops of Benedict's solution is added to it,and is then put into a beaker of boiling water. If the food/solution mixture turns reddish orange instead of staying blue, it is positive.
Lipids are tested for using the brown paper test. a drop of the food is put onto a strip of brown paper, and the test is positive if the paper turns transparent.
Proteins are tested for with Biurets, which is where you add the Biurets solution to the food sample and watch for color changes. The sample may turn a light purple, which would be positive.
Starches can be tested for with iodine. If it is positive, the sample with the iodine drops should turn purple instead of staying a yellow color
What types of foods supply sugar, starch, proteins and lipids?
Carbohydrate- soda, juice, skim/whole milk, yogurt, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
Starch- pudding, cereal, yogurt, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
Proteins- egg white, peanuts, cereal, skim/whole milk, yogurt
Lipids- peanuts, pudding, whole milk, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
How can food labels be used to evaluate dietary choices?
Food labels can be used to evaluate dietary choices by showing multiple nutrients that your body needs and it shows how much you receive by the serving size or all together.
What role do basic nutrients play in the function of the human body?
Basic nutrients help the body develop. Such as Proteins,Carbs,Fats and Minerals/Vitamins. Proteins help with the building and repair. Carbs provide needed energy. Fats not only provide extra energy but its also used as a storage space and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins. MInerals and Vitamins help in regulation of the body function
What are basic recommendations for a diabetic diet?
Exercise daily, Watch nutrient intake such as having a high protein diet, eating whole grains and plenty of vegetables.
What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids? Name subunits, provide examples, and describe the role of each in the body.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The main function of carbohydrates is energy storage. All carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides, the monomer of carbohydrates. Glucose, fructose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugars are all examples of monosaccharides. Other forms of carbohydrates are disaccharides and polysaccharides. Disaccharides have two monosaccharides linked together and polysaccharides have 3 or more monosaccharides linked together. Proteins are made up of amino acids which are composed of an amino group, carboxyl group, and variable group. They are used to build, repair, and maintain tissues. An example of a protein is enzymes. Amino acids are held together by peptide bonds. Lipids are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Lipids are used for long term energy storage, membrane structure, and cell communication. Examples include triglycerides, steroids, and phospholipids.
What is dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?
Dehydration synthesis removes a water molecule in order to bind together two monomers. Hydrolysis splits two monomers and releases energy by adding a water molecule.
How is the amount of energy in a food determined? Explain the difference between Chemistry calories and Food Calories.
It is determined by calories. Calories are the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water one degree celsius. One food calorie(kilocalorie) is 1000 chemistry calories. Measured in joules.
Calculate the energy gained (chemistry calories) by the heated water.
(Energy gained = (mass of water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of water)
Note: The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)
Mass of water = 50g
Mass of food source = 1.50 g
Initial temperature of water = 25.0 oC
Final mass of food source = 1.00 g
Final temperature of water = 70.0 oC

50(45)(1)= 2,250 chem. cal.

Calculate the energy content of the food sample in chemistry calories. Include all units of measurement in the space below.
(Energy content of food sample = Energy gained by water ÷ change in mass of food)
Mass of water = 50g
Mass of food source = 1.50 g
Initial temperature of water = 25.0 oC
Final mass of food source = 1.00 g
Final temperature of water = 70.0 oC

2,250/.5 = 4,500 cal/g
What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the disorder?
A person needs to take medication every day. They need to change their diet to avoid fried and sugary food. They must inject insulin in their body throughout the day to break down glucose for the body to use and they must be checking their blood sugar as often as possible. Also eating high protein food can provide more energy and it can help maintain a healthy diet, because eating less and consuming the correct foods may even eliminate diabetes.
How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes? Describe some symptoms for each.
Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream
symptoms of hyperglycemia
High blood glucose
High levels of sugar in the urine
Frequent urination
Weakness or feeling tired
Increased thirst
Vision blurring
When a person with diabetes has hyperglycemia frequently or for long periods of time, damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other body organs can occur. If left untreated, it can lead to Ketoacidosis.

Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by abnormally low blood glucose.
symptoms of hypoglycemia
shakiness
sweating, chills and claminess
lightheadedness, dizziness
blurred/impaired vision
In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia develops when there is not enough sugar in your body to be used as fuel for cells. It can occur in someone with diabetes following a meal that contains a lot of simple sugars. It may also develop if a person with diabetes misses a snack, doesn't eat the whole meal, eats later than usual, doesn't eat when ill, or drinks alcohol without eating any food.

22. Describe what would happen to cells that are exposed to Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic solutions. 2.3.2
A hypotonic solution has a low concentration of solute. When a cell, which is composed of 70% water and 30% solute, is exposed to a hypotonic solution, the cell gets larger. The concentration of water outside the cell is higher than within the cell, creating an imbalance. In order to maintain equilibrium, water outside the cell travels through semi- impermeable membrane, since concentration travels from high to low. Eventually, the same concentration of water can be found in both environments.
A hypertonic solution has a high concentration of solute. The cell exposed to a hypertonic solution will shrink. Since solute can not travel through the semi- impermeable membrane into the cell because is it too big, water travels outside the cell to maintain homeostasis.
An isotonic solution has the same concentration of solute as the cell. The cell will remain the same size because an equilibrium exists.
How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?
Type I Diabetes
pancreas can't produce insulin
genetic, environmental and autoimmune factors
commonly affects children/teens
treatments include insulin injections, daily exercise, dietary plan, regular check up of blood sugar levels
frequency is 10-15%
Type II Diabetes pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the insulin isn't working properly
genetic, obesity, physical inactivity, poor weight
commonly affects adults, elderly, ethnic groups
treatments include diet, exercise, weight loss, medication
frequency is 85-90%
•Type 1: Genetic, No insulin, need insulin shots and pumps
•Type 2: Genetic/due to overweight, insulin is there, but is not working, regulated by diet and exercise, possibly medicine or insulin
What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?
Type I: insulin injections or Insulin pump. Check blood glucose using Hemoglobin A1C

Type II: Treated with diet, exercise, oral/ injectable medication
Other innovations :
-Artificial Pancreas
-Inhaled Insulin
-Sensor Augmented Pump
What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic?
So that they do not go too high or too low
So serious health issues don't occur
So they don't become hyper or hypoglycemic
If blood sugar levels are too high or low they can have serious complications and in some cases a diabetic coma or death
How can an insulin pump help a diabetic?
Pumps insulin into the body at certain points during the day so they don't miss injections.
Insulin pumps put the insulin directly into the bloodstream so the user gets the highest concentrated amount of insulin possible.
What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes?
Long term: Short term:
Eye problems frequent urination
Foot complications weight gain
Skin complications moodiness
Hearing loss thirst
Oral health fatigue
Gastroparesis dizziness
High blood pressure
Nerve damage
What innovations are available to help diabetics manage and treat their disease?
Insulin pumps- puts insulin directly into the bloodstream with an easy access pump
Insulin injections- manually puts insulin into the bloodstream
Glucose monitors- uses blood to test how much glucose is present in the bloodstream
Glucose tolerance test- tests how tolerant someone is to glucose absorption in the body
How does dehydration synthesis relate to harnessing food energy?
Forms bonds to store energy and break bonds so that the energy from the bonds can be used.
What is the importance of checking blood sugar for diabetics?
It informs you how much glucose is in your blood so you know how much insulin to inject.