Carbohydrate- soda, juice, skim/whole milk, yogurt, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
Starch- pudding, cereal, yogurt, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
Proteins- egg white, peanuts, cereal, skim/whole milk, yogurt
Lipids- peanuts, pudding, whole milk, crackers, low fat crackers, chips, marshmallows
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The main function of carbohydrates is energy storage. All carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides, the monomer of carbohydrates. Glucose, fructose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugars are all examples of monosaccharides. Other forms of carbohydrates are disaccharides and polysaccharides. Disaccharides have two monosaccharides linked together and polysaccharides have 3 or more monosaccharides linked together. Proteins are made up of amino acids which are composed of an amino group, carboxyl group, and variable group. They are used to build, repair, and maintain tissues. An example of a protein is enzymes. Amino acids are held together by peptide bonds. Lipids are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Lipids are used for long term energy storage, membrane structure, and cell communication. Examples include triglycerides, steroids, and phospholipids. Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream
symptoms of hyperglycemia
High blood glucose
High levels of sugar in the urine
Weakness or feeling tired
When a person with diabetes has hyperglycemia frequently or for long periods of time, damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other body organs can occur. If left untreated, it can lead to Ketoacidosis.
Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by abnormally low blood glucose.
symptoms of hypoglycemia
sweating, chills and claminess
In people with diabetes, hypoglycemia develops when there is not enough sugar in your body to be used as fuel for cells. It can occur in someone with diabetes following a meal that contains a lot of simple sugars. It may also develop if a person with diabetes misses a snack, doesn't eat the whole meal, eats later than usual, doesn't eat when ill, or drinks alcohol without eating any food.
22. Describe what would happen to cells that are exposed to Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic solutions. 2.3.2
A hypotonic solution has a low concentration of solute. When a cell, which is composed of 70% water and 30% solute, is exposed to a hypotonic solution, the cell gets larger. The concentration of water outside the cell is higher than within the cell, creating an imbalance. In order to maintain equilibrium, water outside the cell travels through semi- impermeable membrane, since concentration travels from high to low. Eventually, the same concentration of water can be found in both environments.
A hypertonic solution has a high concentration of solute. The cell exposed to a hypertonic solution will shrink. Since solute can not travel through the semi- impermeable membrane into the cell because is it too big, water travels outside the cell to maintain homeostasis.
An isotonic solution has the same concentration of solute as the cell. The cell will remain the same size because an equilibrium exists.
Type I Diabetes
pancreas can't produce insulin
genetic, environmental and autoimmune factors
commonly affects children/teens
treatments include insulin injections, daily exercise, dietary plan, regular check up of blood sugar levels
frequency is 10-15%
Type II Diabetes pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the insulin isn't working properly
genetic, obesity, physical inactivity, poor weight
commonly affects adults, elderly, ethnic groups
treatments include diet, exercise, weight loss, medication
frequency is 85-90%
•Type 1: Genetic, No insulin, need insulin shots and pumps
•Type 2: Genetic/due to overweight, insulin is there, but is not working, regulated by diet and exercise, possibly medicine or insulin