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Stressed/Emphasized Questions for Bio 311C final
Terms in this set (71)
When one triglyceride (triglycerol) is made (from fatty acid components), how many molecules of water are given off?
Legionnaire's disease is caused by a bacterial infection. Human defense cells can engulf the bacteria, but the bacteria can cause lots of trouble for the human cells lysosomes by causing which mode of attack?
interfere with control of pH within the lysosomes
An antibiotic drug with which of the following properties would be likely to stop growth of infectious bacteria without significantly harming human cells?
inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis
Antibiotics such as tetracycline inhibit bacterial ribosomes but not eukaryotic chromosomes. A plausible explanation for this difference is the prokaryotic ribosomes differ from the eukaryotic ones in:
their specific rRNA and protein sequence
predict how a disaccharide connected by an oxygen molecule will dissolve in water:
by forming hydrogen bonds with water
Bile salts, produced in the liver, are related Ito the small intestine where they have an effect of binding to droplets of fats and oils and breaking them down into their droplets that then disperse (scatter, appear to dissolve) in water. Which of these is the chemical nature of bile salts?
amphipathic with respect to polarity
When the synthesis of a particular protein is completed in free ribosomes, it will likely go to which of the following?
Bond between two oppositely charged R groups
Bond between hydrocarbon tails of two phospholipids
Result from equal sharing of electrons between atoms
nonploar covalent bond
bond broken when water evaporates
bond that forms when NaCl becomes Na+Cl-
responsible for vesicles and small organelles moving around the cell
hydrocarbons chains are oxidized to smaller molecules
anchor nucleus in place and hold bulk of cell in place
In several genetic diseases, there is a lack of a specific protein that normally functions as a transmembrane protein. In one case, a normal protein is translated at the ribosome but fails to enter the endomembrane pathway. What is missing in the mutant form of the protein?
A genetic condition results in lack of functioning sweat glands. People with this condition cannot sweat (lose water in perspiration). Why do they get over-heated more often than people who can sweat normally?
cannot cool down (no hydrogen bonds being broken)
The part of an antibody labelled "antigen binding site" will bind only to a very specific structure (e.g. the surface of a certain kind of virus particle). Name two aspects or properties of the protein structure at the tip of an antibody that (as with any protein) could insure that it only binds to a virus with specific properties.
shape of the protein and polarity change
When antibodies are attached to antigens floating in the circulatory system, macrophage cells (part of the non-specific defense system) are attracted to the antigen-binding complex, actively engulf them, and break them down inside the cell. Changes in what specific cell structure allows the macrophage to engulf the complex __________________, and an abundance of what type of organelle allows them to digest the complex?
According to the second law of thermodynamics, whenever any reactions occurs (within a closed system) which of these is true?
deltaS must increase
Which of these states has a greater free energy, that is the greater capacity to do work?
low entropy and high enthalpy
Which of these gradients, by itself, could influence the net direction of Na+ movement across the membrane through passive Na+ ion channels?
an electrical charge gradient
Competitive inhibitors of enzymes work by
binding to the enzyme's active site
A gradient across a plasma membrane of which of the following could cause water to move by osmosis?
FAD is a dinucleotide coenzyme that is important in cellular respiration. It is (becomes) _____________ when gaining electrons and then is (becomes) _____________ when it loses electrons.
Two products of the Krebs cycle that transfer energy to the electron transport system are:
NADH and FADH2
Certain neurotransmitter signals cause passive membrane channels for chloride ion Cl- to open. What is the resulting membrane potential change of the receiving post-synaptic cell?
Cl- ions flow into the post-synaptic cell, asking the inside of the cell more negative
At night, the pH inside the thylakoid space/compartment will ____________
increase because the light reactions stop
The electron transport chain molecules (cytochromes etc) are located
in the inner mitochondrial membrane
The enzymes controlling the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) are located
in the mitochondrial matrix
The enzymes controlling glycolysis reactions are located
in the cytosol
Which of the following processes occurs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions?
Oxygen molecules (O2) are used directly in which part of cellular respiration?
electron transport chain
The O atoms that enter photosynthesis in CO2 will exit the reactions in which product?
Most of the CO2 that we breathe out comes from
the Krebs Cycle
How can this cell use ATP to make mire water flow across the membrane from the cytosol into its large vacuole?
pump solute into vacuole; water follows
In what part of which organelle does this cell produce most of the ATP for doing transport work such as in the previous question?
inner membrane of mitochondria
Plants in several species store cyanide in their vacuoles as a potential defense against animals that chew their leaves. Yet cyanide can inhibit both aerobic respiration and the light reactions because it binds to the last cytochrome in electron transport systems, permanently reducing it and blocking electron flow. What is the problem after cyanide binds?
electron transport stops
The enzyme PFK catalyzes a reaction early in the glycolysis pathway. What makes PFK control an example of "allosteric" inhibition?
binds at a different site on the substrate, changing the shape of the active site
The enzyme PFK catalyzes a reaction early in the glycolysis pathway. What make PFK control benefit the cell?
ATP is the end product of glycolysis
Scientists found that the molecule of heredity
could be destroyed by DNAases (enzymes that hydrolyze DNA)
What of the following equations is appropriate when considering DNA base composition?
%A + %G = %T + %C
To help define whether the molecule of heredity was DNA or protein, investigators Hershey and Chase used what kind of radioactive labels in their batches of bacteriophage viruses?
radioactive phosphorus to indicate DNA but not protein
Liver cells, mammary gland cells, and skin cells all contain the same genomic DNA; however, the proteins within them vary hugely. This observation is best explained by what phenomenon?
Proteins in the transcription initiation complex (that help transcription begin) bind to what?
What events must take place to insure that the protein made is really the one specified by mRNA?
tRNA anticodon must match mRNA codon correctly and tRNA must carry the amino acid that is correct for its reading of the mRNA
For the lac operon, what would be expected effects of a mutation in operators site that prevented the biding of the repressor protein?
the operon would always be turned on
What is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing DNA strand?
The immediate consequence if there is a mutation in the promoter
mRNA is not made
The immediate consequence if there is a mutation in the splice site
different polypeptide is made
The immediate consequence if there is a mutation in the start codon
mRNA is not translated
The immediate consequence if there is a mutation in the 3rd base of an Ala codon (Alanine)
DNA is not replicated
The condensation reaction adding a new nucleotide to the growing DNA strand is endergonic. What is the source of energy?
use of try-phosphate building blocks
As erythrocytes (red blood cells) differentiate they become specialized to produce only hemoglobin. In final maturation step, their nuclei break down and disintegrate, yet individual erythrocytes can live for weeks, continuing to make hemoglobin and binding O2. What is the explanation?
their mRNA molecules;es endure and can be translated many times
If a gene's promoter is mutated, it will not be transcribed
true for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
many genes contain introns
true for eukaryotes only
the same mRNA can be simultaneously transcribed and translated
true for prokaryotes
many genes have enhancers
true for eukaryotes
one mRNA can contain multiple start and stop codons
true for prokaryotes only
Which end of the mRNA molecule is made first? 3' or 5'?
If the 3' --> 5' nucleotide sequence on the template DNA strand is CAT, what is the corresponding codon (5' --> 3') on mRNA made from that DNA?
What is the tRNA anticodon (written 5' --> 3') that will bind to that mRNA codon (GUA)?
In eukaryotic systems, name the best means of controlling genes: a change to histone that will make genes less likely to be expressed.
tissue specific activators bound to repressors
In eukaryotic systems, name the best means of controlling genes: make slightly different versions of the same protein in different cells
Name 3 ways an mRNA molecule in eukaryotes us processed before leaving the nucleus.
-addition of a 5' cap
-addition of a poly-A tail
-splice out introns
list all the regions that must be in the DNA to ensure that mRNA will be expressed in cells of a certain tissue-type
In a few words, tell what would go wrong or would be a problem in a eukaryotic cell: a cell's spliceosomes are mutated so couldn't function normally
exons are not spliced together
In a few words, tell what would go wrong or would be a problem in a eukaryotic cell: there is a mutation in the signal peptide of the protein
SRP wouldn't move the growing peptide into rER so could not enter ends-membrane pathway
In a few words, tell what would go wrong or would be a problem in a eukaryotic cell: there is a mutation in the step codon
will keep going on and on (thus rendering the protein useless)
In a few words, tell what would go wrong or would be a problem in a eukaryotic cell: poly-A tail was not added to the mRNA
the mRNA would be degraded or would not leave the nucleus; would not be translated
In a few words, tell what would go wrong or would be a problem in a eukaryotic cell: there were no transcription factors at a particular promoter
no transcription would occur
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