Unit 4: lectures 11,12,13

Why is the League of Nations INEFFECTIVE?
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France and Allied forces occupied (1919 - 1930) Germany's Rhineland, Ruhr Valley, and Saarland because?Germany couldn't pay the reparations from warWhat was the stabbed-in-the-back theory?The belief that Germany's soldiers did not LOSE in the first World war but they were sold out by the politicians and the Jews back home.Why is the Dawes Plan (1924) significant?A temporary fix for Germany's economic situationWhy were the Storm Troopers (SA) formed?Political soldiers whose job was to find the communists, break up their meetings, harass them and protects the Nazi eliteWhat was the Beer Hall Putsch (1923) and why is it significant?Hitler's failed rise to power, the Nazi's were foiled by the government and Hitler was put into prison and charged with high treasonWhat is Mein Kampf and why is it significant?Adolf Hitler's book about his views of German nationalism and antisemitismWhy is the New York Stock Market Crash (1929) significant?-Causes a Worldwide financial panic -Ends the loans to Germany -hits the German middle class hard, makes them listen to HitlerAfter 1924, how did Adolf Hitler and the Nazis plan to take control of Germany?Propaganda that unites the struggling public against their enemy'sAs the LARGEST party within the German Reichstag, what privilege did the Nazis have coming to them?their leader gets to be chancellor (Hitler)The Emergency Decree gave Adolf Hitler and the Nazis what?gave the president the power to take any measures necessary to protect public safety and protects Hitler and the Nazi's?What did Adolf Hitler do upon the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg?becomes the sole leader, chancellor and the presidentWhat does the term Gleichschaltung mean?coordination, takes control of all aspects of lifeWhy were the Schutzstaffel (SS) needed?originally formed to provide protection to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi elite, includes the German secret police: used fear to get their message acrossWhat were the Nuremberg Laws designed to do?laws designed to exclude Jews from German societyWhy did Benito Mussolini's Italian forced overrun Ethiopia?Wants the territory because it was one of the only independent countries left in Africa that was not already under European ruleHow did Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini AID Francisco Franco?They helped him come to power by sending him troops and new equipmentWhat does the term Lebensraum mean?living space/roomWhy was Germany's signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan significant?Pearl Harbor-US declares war on Japan, Nazi Germany honors their alliance with Japan and declares war on the US, causes the downfall of Nazi Germany because the US fights in Europe.What was Kristallnacht and why was it launched?It was the Night of Broken Glass, a German wide crack down on the Jews in Germany, rounded up them as revenge for the death of the German DiplomatWhat was the Sudetenland?German speaking people (German portion of Czech)Why is the Munich Conference (1938) significant and what is meant by appeasement?When France and GB gave Hitler the Sudetenland because he said he wouldn't take any more land. France and GB decided to give in to what Hitler wantedWhy is the Non-Aggression Pact significant?they believed Soviet Union could stop Hitler then the soviet union shocks everyone by forming an alliance with Hitler. Germany was not ready to attack the Soviet Union so temporarily they would be allies.The drawing of new state boundaries after World War One led directly to what occurring?Violence as efforts were made to affect the course of these boundaries or as new states were challenged.What was the widest-ranging post-war (WWI) struggle?Russian Civil warMuch of the Ottoman Empire was allocated to whom?Britain (Iraq, Palestine, Trans- Jordan)Western powers were willing to use what to maintain their imperial challenge?Considerable forceGermany's failure to pay her reparations payments to the Allies led to what?France and Belgium to send troops into the industrial Ruhr region to pursue the unilateral option of collecting the money directlyCommander of the Chinese Nationalist forced was who?Jiang JieshiMost 'Third World' states found that their principle challenges in the 1920's were from what?Internal divisions rather than international conflictsWhat played a role in various 'Third World' conflicts?New technologyThe United States deployed its power in the 1920s and 1930s to further her interests where?Central America and West IndiesWho made the greatest advances in the inter-war period in regards to naval aviation and aircraft carriers?USA and JapanGermany's air force was also referred to as what?LuftwaffeThe Germans planned to use what in mass to achieve a deep breakthrough in the enemy's lines?TanksWhat does the term völkisch mean?Radical right-winged groups and organizations opposed to the allegedly too moderate foreign and domestic policies of the Wilhelmina EmpireWhat constituted the negative völkisch ideology?Racial anti-SemitismThe Nazis' deliberate appeal to what made it appear less tied to the wealthy bourgeoisie?The working classAfter Adolf Hitler's brief prison stint, he re-founded the Nazi Party stressing what?Organizational disciplineWho was Ernest Röhm?The head of SA, aroused the general's suspicions by failing to counter the talk of a "second revolution"What was the Night of Long Knives (1934)?Many conservative leaders were shot and killed, Nazi leaders used the opportunity to settle old scoresWhat is meant by Blitzkrieg tactics?lightening war- swift movements of infantryWhat is significant (ironic) about France's surrender at Compiegne?Hitler wants to seek personal revenge on the French and recreate the surrender that Germany had to do to French during the first World WarWhy is the Battle of Britain significant?It represents Great Britain's resilience. British win and defeat the GermansWhy is Operation Barbarossa (1941) significant?it represents Hitler's breaking the Non-Aggression Pact and invading the Soviet Union. Fails because it is winter season in Russia and the Germans freeze to death. Shows that the Germans are not unstoppable.Why are the Einsatzgruppen units cumbersome & SLOW in carrying out their duties?"death squads" were outnumbered by the amount of Jews they were trying to eliminate and they were wasting resources and time trying to kill so many peopleWhy is the Wannsee Conference significant?it was here that what becomes known as the final solution/holocuast is planned out logistically- the building of Death camps is decided onWhy were the death camps built outside of Germany?Easier to hide it from the German population, it was conveniently located closely to the Jews so they wouldn't have to transport them long distancesWhat was the Holocaust?A planned killing of a race of people; in this case, it was the extermination of Jewish people in Europe; 6 million Jews were killedWhat role did the German firm I.G. Farben's play in the Holocaust?They designed the gas that was used to gas the JewsWhy is the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor significant?Thousands of US soldiers were killed as well as significant damage on US naval ships, starts the declaration of War on JapanWhy is the German defeat at Stalingrad important?two strikes against the German MilitaryWhy did the entrance of American troops in Africa embitter (anger) the Soviet Union and why is this significant?they wanted the US to enter Europe directly so it would take the pressure off of the Soviet Unionit is known as the BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR because the Soviet Union loses trust in the USWhat ultimately happened to Benito Mussolini?Gets lynched when he tries to fleeThe Battles of Coral Sea & Midway are significant for what reasons?US aircraft carriers are used to take out many Japanese Ships, stop the line of expansion and pushes them back. Turning point of the war on PacificWhy is the D-Day Invasion [Operation Overlord] significant?The turning point of the warWhy is the Yalta Conference significant- what was decided here?Churchill, FDR, and Stalin meet up here to discuss that after the war they will occupy Nazi Germany after they defeat them and that they will create the United NationsWhat is meant by Island hopping and why was this undertaken?Taking island chains one by one in order to get closer and closer to Japan in order to drop bombs on themWhat was the Manhattan Project?the plan to develop the atomic bombWhy were the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki - why were these cities targeted?In order to stop Japan from continuing the war, targeted because they were industrial centersWhat is meant by VE Day & VJ Day respectively?victory in Europe& Victory over JapanUnlike World War One, what makes World War Two unique?It has been the sole war to involve all the major powers of the worldWhat did France's Marshal Foch say about the Treaty of Versailles?This is not peace. It is an armistice for twenty years.Though he prepared for an invasion of Great Britain, Adolf Hitler offered the British what?Peace with BritainAdolf Hilter believed that a clash with who was inevitable?Communism: The Soviet UnionThe Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor because they (Japan) saw the United States as what?An obstacle to Japans PlansWhat was the FIRST battle fought entirely between aircraft carrier groups?Battle of MidwayWhat battle established the primacy of aircraft carriers?Battle of Philippine SeaThe seizure of what Middle Eastern nation was of great benefit to the successful Allied determination to control the major sources of oil productionPersian (Iran)The Soviet advance into the Balkans led in 1944 to the overthrow of what pro-German governments?Romania, Bulgaria, and HungaryJ.F.C. Fuller noted that D-Day (Operation Overlord) marked a major advance in what?Amphibious operations (troops brought to land by naval ships)The Allies (particularly Americans) in the Pacific had to coordinate what in order to defeat their Japanese opponents?Air, Sea, and Land forcesWhat put enormous pressure on societies?The scale of the war and the nature of operationsWhat statement did Winston Churchill make about Europe in 1946?Its like an Iron Curtain has descended across Europe- and has divided it into two partsWhat was the policy of containment all about?stop communism from spreadingWhat does the Truman Doctrine provide for?Economic aid for Greece and TurkeyWhat does the Marshall Plan do?Commits the United States to rebuilding Western EuropeWhat occurs when the Soviets blocked land access to West Berlin?Americans and British start to fly supplies in-Berlin AirliftWhat was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?NATO: military alliance in peace timeWhat was the Korean Conflict (War) and how does it begin?War between 14 Nations defending South Korea from a North Korean invasionWhat did the UN call the Korean conflict?police actionWhat country's entry into the Korean War caused concern?ChinaWhat are the legacies of the Korean Conflict?-NO peace treaty, merely armistice -Korea is divided -DMZ (demilitarized zone) still separates North and South Korea -sets stage politically for later conflicts like VietnamWhy is Sputnik I significant?launches space race-first artificial satelliteWhy did the Soviets build the Berlin Wall?To prevent mass defections of East Berliners from seeking political asylum in West Berlin.What did the United States discover that the Soviets had placed in Cuba?Medium range missilesWhat was the Bay of Pigs invasion and why is it important?failed US invasion in Cuba, significant preemptive event leading up to the Cuba Missile CrisisWhy was Dien Bien Phu important?French forces surrender to the N. Vietnamese, marks the end of their colonial presence in Vietnam. Starts Americas long term involvement in VietnamThe Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave US president Lyndon Johnson what?gave Johnson a green light to do whatever needed to combat the situation in N. Vietnam without going to warHow was the Tet Offensive a psychological blow to America's effort in Vietnam?News is covering the war and reporting back numbers of dead soldiers, Americans think we are winning the war until this attack and so the American public begins to turn against the War.What is meant by détente?A French word meaning "reduce the tension"What ultimately happened to South Vietnam?Falls to North Vietnamese forcesWhat is seen as the Soviet Union's Vietnam?AfghanistanWhy is the fall of the Berlin Wall significant?symbolized the end of communism and the beginning of capitalismWhat happened as a result of Iraq invading Kuwait?Desert storm- largest military presence sinceWhat was 9-11 and why is it significant?terrorists attacks of the twin towers, causes the US to look for Bin Laden because he was the mastermind behind the attackWho was Saddam Hussein?president of IraqWhat factors led to the Cold War?1. changes in the global distribution of power 2. weapons technology 3. balance of political forces within&among nations 4. undeveloped periphery (borders)Throughout the Cold War, the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies possessed a superiority of what?In ground forces along the central front in the heart of EuropeClosely related to the global distribution of power, what was one of the most dynamic aspects of the Cold War?The arms raceThe Cold War distorted the process by which colonies gained what?their independence and made decolonization more difficult and more violentThe FALL of Dien Bien Phu led the French to do what?sign the Geneva Accords in July and end their colonial presence in Southeast AsiaThe Viet Minh's victory at Dien Bien Phu is significant for what reason?It virtually ended one Vietnam war and set the stage for a secondWhat is meant by symmetrical warfare and asymmetrical warfare?Symmetrical wars- the opposing sides have militaries that share basic organizational structure, have equivalent level of technology, and use similar doctrines Asymmetrical wars- one side possesses seemingly overwhelming advantages in these areasThe post-WW2 period is sometimes referred to as the age of what fighting force?The guerrillaThe rise of the guerilla is consistent with what key theme in the post-WW2 period?The decline of imperialismThe success of guerilla forces was a function of what?The superpowers' obsession with each otherWhat modern country subjects both men and women to military conscription (a draft)?IsraelThe Soviet detonation of its own nuclear bomb in 1949 led the United States to do what?To begin research into much deadlier hydrogen bombsWhere was the great battle supposed to take place that NATO and the Warsaw Pact had planned for?Central or western EuropeThe two best examples of symmetrical warfare (the superiority of one side's resources and doctrine emerged to produce a quick victory) are found in where?1.Great Britain's victory over Argentina in the Falkland Islands War 2.The American-led coalition victory over Iraq in the Persian Gulf WarHow was the Vietnam War, two wars?The one France fought from 1947 to 1954 and the one the US fought against the same opponent from 1965 to 1973