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cell theory

- all organisms are made up of cells
- cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
- new cells come from existing cells


- no nucleus
- small
- very few organelles present (ribosomes, cell wall, cytoplasm)


- nucleus
- large
- many complex organelles


hold/cushions organelles, provides structure, and location of reaction


stores/protects DNA, directs protein synthesis, and is information and control center of the cell


makes proteins

smooth ER

no ribosomes, detoxifies poisons

golgi apparatus

modifies, sorts, packages, and distributes proteins and other materials from the ER storage in the cell or secretion outside of the cell


the clean up of the cell


stores H2O, salts, proteins, and carbs, pumps out excess water


provides energy for cell/power plant, site of cellular respiration


site of photosynthesis

cell membrane

regulates what enters and leaves the cell

cell wall

to protect plant cells, to provide structure and support, and prevent excessive uptake of water

rough ER

has ribosomes, makes polypeptides


makes ribosomes


network of protein fibers that provide support and allow movement, contain microfilaments and microtubules


structures of cells that act as if they are specialized organs


stacks of thylakoids in the chloroplast


the process by which autotrophs convert sunlight into food energy (glucose sugar)

light reaction

reaction in which light and H2O are used to make ATP, NADPH, and O2


type of cellular respiration without oxygen


the main energy storing compound for cells, is made from glucose during cellular respiration (mitochondria)


made by electrons that travel along an electron transport chain, supplies energy for reactions in calvin cycle


short, hair-like projections made of protein


granular material in the nucleus, consists of DNA bound to proteins

thylakoid discs

disks in the chloroplast surrounded by membranes that contain photosystems and chlorophyll

cellular respiration

the process that breaks down glucose molecules to release energy (ATP)

lactic acid

builds up in the muscle and creates soreness

kreb cycle

- occurs in the matrix of mitochondria
- pyruvate and ATP goes in
- CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH comes out


(splitting of glucose)
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- glucose and ATP go in
- pyruvate and ATP come out

bacterial cells

are prokaryotic so they have no nucleus, DNA is in nucleoid region

what do bacterial cells contain?

cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, flagella, cytoplasm, capsule and pilli

cell wall (BC)

rigid and may have peptidoglycan (a molecule of sugar cross linked by polypeptides)

cell membrane (BC)

border of cell

ribosomes (BC)

large number to produce proteins

flagella (BC)

thinner than in eukaryotic cells and can be found all over cell or just at the ends


in bacterial cell, outside the cell wall and provide protection


in bacterial cell, surface appendages that allow bacteria to adhere to things


long tail like projections made of proteins


gel-like material between grana


type of cellular respiration with oxygen

alcoholic fermentation

in plants, makes 2 ATP, CO2, and alcohol from pyruvate

calvin cycle

- occurs in the stroma
- ATP, NADPH, and CO2 go in
- glucose comes out

nucleoid region

where DNA is held

what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6+6CO2->6H2O+36 ATP

what is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?



contain coiled DNA

what is the primary goal of cellular respiration?


what occurs in muscle cells when oxygen is not present?

lactic acid fermentation

which part of cellular respiration produces the most ATP?

electron transport chain

during cellular respiration and the electron transport chain, what molecules are created?

water & ATP

in the absence of oxygen what does yeast convert pyruvate molecules into?

carbon dioxide and alcohol

what are 2 differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

- photosynthesis only occurs in plants, while cellular respiration occurs in plants and animals
- photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast, while cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria

what are 2 similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

- both change energy from one form to another
- have same materials

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