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55 terms

Cell Structure/Photosynthesis/Cellular Respiration Test

STUDY
PLAY
cell theory
- all organisms are made up of cells
- cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
- new cells come from existing cells
prokaryotes
- no nucleus
- small
- very few organelles present (ribosomes, cell wall, cytoplasm)
eukaryotes
- nucleus
- large
- many complex organelles
cytoplasm
hold/cushions organelles, provides structure, and location of reaction
nucleus
stores/protects DNA, directs protein synthesis, and is information and control center of the cell
ribosomes
makes proteins
smooth ER
no ribosomes, detoxifies poisons
golgi apparatus
modifies, sorts, packages, and distributes proteins and other materials from the ER storage in the cell or secretion outside of the cell
lysosomes
the clean up of the cell
vacuoles
stores H2O, salts, proteins, and carbs, pumps out excess water
mitochondria
provides energy for cell/power plant, site of cellular respiration
chloroplast
site of photosynthesis
cell membrane
regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cell wall
to protect plant cells, to provide structure and support, and prevent excessive uptake of water
rough ER
has ribosomes, makes polypeptides
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
cytoskeleton
network of protein fibers that provide support and allow movement, contain microfilaments and microtubules
organelle
structures of cells that act as if they are specialized organs
grana
stacks of thylakoids in the chloroplast
photosynthesis
the process by which autotrophs convert sunlight into food energy (glucose sugar)
light reaction
reaction in which light and H2O are used to make ATP, NADPH, and O2
anaerobic
type of cellular respiration without oxygen
ATP
the main energy storing compound for cells, is made from glucose during cellular respiration (mitochondria)
NADPH
made by electrons that travel along an electron transport chain, supplies energy for reactions in calvin cycle
cilia
short, hair-like projections made of protein
chromatin
granular material in the nucleus, consists of DNA bound to proteins
thylakoid discs
disks in the chloroplast surrounded by membranes that contain photosystems and chlorophyll
cellular respiration
the process that breaks down glucose molecules to release energy (ATP)
lactic acid
builds up in the muscle and creates soreness
kreb cycle
- occurs in the matrix of mitochondria
- pyruvate and ATP goes in
- CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH comes out
glycolysis
(splitting of glucose)
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- glucose and ATP go in
- pyruvate and ATP come out
bacterial cells
are prokaryotic so they have no nucleus, DNA is in nucleoid region
what do bacterial cells contain?
cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, flagella, cytoplasm, capsule and pilli
cell wall (BC)
rigid and may have peptidoglycan (a molecule of sugar cross linked by polypeptides)
cell membrane (BC)
border of cell
ribosomes (BC)
large number to produce proteins
flagella (BC)
thinner than in eukaryotic cells and can be found all over cell or just at the ends
capsule
in bacterial cell, outside the cell wall and provide protection
pilli
in bacterial cell, surface appendages that allow bacteria to adhere to things
flagella
long tail like projections made of proteins
stroma
gel-like material between grana
aerobic
type of cellular respiration with oxygen
alcoholic fermentation
in plants, makes 2 ATP, CO2, and alcohol from pyruvate
calvin cycle
- occurs in the stroma
- ATP, NADPH, and CO2 go in
- glucose comes out
nucleoid region
where DNA is held
what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6+6CO2->6H2O+36 ATP
what is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2+6H2O+sunlight->C6H12O6+6O2
chromosomes
contain coiled DNA
what is the primary goal of cellular respiration?
ATP
what occurs in muscle cells when oxygen is not present?
lactic acid fermentation
which part of cellular respiration produces the most ATP?
electron transport chain
during cellular respiration and the electron transport chain, what molecules are created?
water & ATP
in the absence of oxygen what does yeast convert pyruvate molecules into?
carbon dioxide and alcohol
what are 2 differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- photosynthesis only occurs in plants, while cellular respiration occurs in plants and animals
- photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast, while cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria
what are 2 similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- both change energy from one form to another
- have same materials