MC 101 Test 4
Terms in this set (90)
How many hours a week does the average American spend listening to music?
Music is _______ (like books and movies)
The marginal cost (the cost of reproducing a piece of music) for producing music is high or low?
Music's ______ and _______ sales are down
Physical (CDs and Vinyl)
Music's physical sales are down what % since their peak in 2001?
Musics _____ sales are up and keep going up
what sales are now 26% of the market, the highest since 1985?
What are the 3 types of digital downloads
Subscription, Streaming radio services, Ad supported on-demand
Examples of music subscriptions
Spotify, Tidal, Apple Music
Examples of music streaming radio services
Examples of music Ad Supported on-demand services
Youtube, Vevo, ad-supported Spotify
The music industry is under what type of control?
____ major recording labels sell what % of all music?
(A &R) Executive
the division of a record label company that finds and develops artists. It is the link between the recording artist/act and the record label, generally to help with the artistic and commercial development of the label's artists.
What 50 Cent earns from the sale of his CDs and (legal) downloads.
Do recording artist make money (get royalties) when their music is played on the radio or TV?
No, because it's believed that spurs sales.
Royalties on recording sales AND on radio play and other public performances.
Efforts to record sound started with what?
tape, sermons, lectures, etc.
What was the first recording?
Mary Had a Little Lamb
Hardware formats for recording sound
-Cylinders vs. platters
-78s vs. 45s vs. 33s
-8 tracks vs. LPs
-8 tracks vs. casettes
-The compact disc (CD)
Best selling hardware format for recording sound
The compact disc (CD)
What percent of people steal music online or by copying friend's CDs?
25% of people steal music
What percent of people say it is morally acceptable to steal music online or by copying a friend's?
15% of people say it is acceptable to steal music
Nearly ______ of all CDs sold worldwide are ______ copies.
Because 1/3 of all CDs sold are illegal copies, what is the loss in CD sales per year?
$4.5 billion year
In 30 countries, more bootleg ____ are sold than original
20 billion ____ were downloaded illegal last year, even as _____ sales tripled to $1.1 billion in the U.S.
Nearly ____ in 20 digital songs were obtained _____ last year
What was the first personal mass medium
____% of people listen to radio weekly
AM, FM, HD-radio are all what type of radio?
Satellite, Internet, Podcasting, etc. are all what type of radio?
formerly known as Arbitron — is the agency that primarily handles radio ratings.
invented the telegraph
discovered sound waves
used coils to transmit sound
sent the first radio transmission
figured out how to send sound
Created in 1934, primarily concerned with deciding how the radio frequency is divided.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
all radio stations must act in the public interest, convenience and necessity.
Radio Act of 1927
-News changed to broadcast format.
-Politics changed when FDR began his "fireside chats."
-Entertainment shows came to masses through radio broadcasts.
-Radio sports broadcasts made stars out of athletes.
During what age did these thing happen?
The Golden Age: 1920-40s
-The DJ became prominent.
-Radio became music focused, and more portable.
During what age did these things happen?
The dawn of television
-FM listenership exceeded AM starting in the 1960s.
-AM radio now is mostly talk radio.
FM (Frequency modulation) vs. AM (Amplitude modulation)
1996 Telecommunications Act lifted some of the restrictions on ownership; the number of radio station owners has fallen 35 percent since then.
The typical American watches 181 hours of ______ per month.
TV production took off after World War II.. how may sets were sold by 1952
What were the four television networks at first
NBC, CBS, ABC and Dumont
Recordings were first done on the _________, for airing on the West Coast.
Eventually replaced by _______.
ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, PBS
What are all these things
Networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, PBS)
provide programming to local affiliate stations. (They own some affiliate stations, too.)
have license from FCC, equipment, and local staff.
If ________ programming from network, get limited ad revenue and (may) get _______
carriage fee (tv tax)
local and syndicated programming
Can also carry local and syndicated programming, keep all ad revenue.
a television program being shown on a different television network than the one that first showed the program. A syndicated program can also be a program that was not made for a television network. These types of programs are made and then sold to many different television stations to be shown.
(Netflix, Amazon, Hulu)
210 different markets across the US
There is _____ limit to the number of stations one group can own, but one group _______ combine stations to reach more than _____ percent of the U.S. population.
How Local television stations make money from what?
National broadcasters (cable and over-the-air) make money from what?
-Programming (DVDs, Netflix, etc.)
Cable/satellite providers (Comcast, TimeWarner, etc.) make money from what?
-Subscriber fees - TV and Internet
-Programming (DVDs, Netflix, etc.)
began in the 1950s as "Community Antenna Television" (CATV).
was designed to give hard-to-reach areas satisfactory reception from the nearest broadcast television stations.
CATV "Community Antenna Television"
the first pay station
the first cable station to carry original content
In the 1970s _________ were made geostationary, parked 22,300 miles above one section of the earth's surface.
systems deliver television programming to individual homes.
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS)
TV shifted to digital by ______
Time-shifting _____ took over in the 2000s.
DVR created what?
More product placement.
Cable went online in the _______, as well.
Waste of time, doesn't reflect real life, stereotypes, violence, etc.
Movies are a _____ medium.
Home media (DVD & Digital)
The US exports its ______ through movies
the retina of the human eye will hold onto an image for a brief moment
Persistence of vision
________ first started in 1878 to photograph a horse
created the camera
created movie projectors
First movie story
The Great Train Robbery
Birth of A Nation
Nanook of the North
Moviemaking moved to Hollywood to take advantage of ____________, ___________ and ______________
fewer regulations, cheaper land and better weather.
The Golden Age of movies
The Big Six Studios
20th Century Fox
No picture shall be produced that will lower the moral standards of those who see it.
Hays code eventually led to what?
voluntary ratings system.
Are there two female characters?
Do they have names?
Do they talk to each other?
About something other than a man?
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