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U.S. History Chapter 16 Test: 1930's Roosevelt's Administration

review study guide questions for chapter 16
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What was the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933?
stimulated industrial activities and reduced unemployment
What were 4 things the National Industrial Recovery Act did?
1. stabilized prices
2. raised wages
3. limited work hours
4. created jobs
What did the Public Works Administration contract with private firms?
built roads, public buildings, and other public works projects
Why did Roosevelt suspend antitrust laws?
allow businesses to work together to set hours, production levels, and wages
What right were workers guaranteed?
right to bargain collectively through representatives
Why did the National Recovery Administration fail?
businesses were not able to work well together and the wages were kept down
What did the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of 1933 do?
paid farmers to reduce their production allowing farmers to raise their prices
How did the Supreme Court respond to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in 1936?
ruled the administration unconstitutional
How were African Americans who were employed treated?
strictly segregated from white workers
not allowed to live in corporate model towns
How did the National Industrial Recovery Act raise tensions between Whites and African Americans?
set lower wages for African Americans
What was the New Deal?
Roosevelt's series of 15 relief and recovery measures for the American people
What was Roosevelt's first relief effort?
bank holiday
What was a bank holiday?
Roosevelt closed every bank for a few days to stop massive withdrawals
What was the Emergency Banking Act?
federal government would examine all banks and allow those that are financially sound to reopen
What was the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of 1933?
insured each bank deposit up to $5,000
What was the Home Owners Loan Corporation of 1933?
assisted home owners who could not meet their mortgage payments by granting long-term mortgage loans
What was the Farm Credit Administration of 1933?
provided low interest long-term mortgages for farms
What was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration of 1933?
distributed $500 million dollars to state and local agencies that created work relief projects
What did the Civil Works Administration create?
make work projects such as picking up litter, raking leaves, etc...
What was the Civilian Conservation Corporation?
young men joined the army and were trained to plant trees, clear underbrush, create park trails, develop campgrounds
What was the Securities and Exchange Commission?
regulated companies that sold stocks and bonds
What did Roosevelt attempt to do during his second term?
reform the Supreme Court
What did Roosevelt ask Congress to grant him the power to do in 1937?
appoint a new justice for each justice over 70 years old
Did Congress grant Roosevelt the power to pack the Supreme Court?
NO, they believed it would cause an imbalance of powers
What happened to the Supreme Court justices during Roosevelt's second term?
many justices died or retired
How did Roosevelt appointing new justices affect legislation?
Supreme Court upheld the Second New Deal
What was the Wagner Connery Act of 1935?
guaranteed the labor's right to organize and bargain collectively for better wages and better working conditions
How did the Wagner Connery Act affect workers?
workers went on strikes uniting for better wages and working conditions
What was the Second Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938?
gave payments to farmers who withdrew land from production and practiced conservation
What power did the Second Agricultural Adjustment Act give to the Department of Agriculture?
power to limit the amount of crops that could be brought to the market
What was the Farm Security Administration of 1937?
provided low interest loans to help tenant farmers and sharecroppers to buy land
provided shelter and medical care for migrant farm workers
Why did Roosevelt begin cutting back on public works programs in 1936?
he received criticism for excessive government spending
What happened when Roosevelt cut back on public works programs?
unemployment increased and the economy worsened
What did Roosevelt do when the economy worsened?
expanded relief programs
What did the Second New Deal initiate?
1. more public works programs
2. social security
3. wage improvements
4. labor hours improvements
What was the Works Progress Administration of 1935?
program designed to help Americans find work
What was the National Youth Administration?
provided high school students and college students with part time jobs that allowed them to stay in school
What were the three provisions of the Social Security Act of 1935?
1. unemployment insurance for workers who lost their jobs
2. retirement pensions
3. payments to people with disabilities, elderly, and wives and children of male workers who died
What was the Rural Electrification Administration of 1935?
provided electricity to isolated rural areas
What was the Revenue Act of 1935?
raised taxes for the nation's richest people
What was the Dust Bowl?
severe drought that struck the Great Plains
What did the Department of Agriculture do to help the Dust Bowl?
started programs in soil erosion control and planted 217 million trees by workers
What did farmers do when they lost their land during the Dust Bowl?
migrated west to California hoping very better harvests
Why did Roosevelt hire photographers to take pictures of the Dust Bowl?
gain Congressional and public support of the federal relief programs
What were some of the criticisms of the New Deal reforms?
1. created a welfare state
2. promoted deficit spending
3. threatened free enterprise
What was the Federal Project Number One of 1935?
provided work to artists and writers
What jobs did federal writers' projects create?
wrote travel guides and histories of ethnic groups
What music was popular as it focused on the family?
country music and gospel music