Encounter and Exchange
Encounter and Exchange Unit Review
Terms in this set (37)
Name the achievements of Chinese Emperor Tang Taizong.
*Responsible for reconquering northern and western lands that China had lost since Decline of Han Dynasty.
*Emperor of the Tang Dynasty, reigning from 626-649.
What were some of the important technological advances during the Tang and Song eras?
Movable type, the compass, and gunpowder.
Why did the power of old aristocratic families begin to fade during Tang and Song times?
*A gentry emerged- large upper class made up of scholar-officials and their families.
* The gentry attained their status through education and civil service positions rather than through land ownership.
List the achievements of Empress Wu Zhao.
*Only female Emperor in Chinese history.
*Extends Chinese influence over China in 668.
How did changes in agriculture support other developments during the Song Dynasty?
*Introducing a new strain of rice from Vietnam increased the food supply, allowing for the growth of cities.
Describe Neo-Confucianism. What new concepts did it incorporate and what was it a reaction to.
*Neo-Confucianism was an intellectual reaction to the challenges of Buddhist and Daoist philosophy.
*Confucian scholars incorporated Buddhist and Daoist concepts into Neo-Confucianism.
*Basic concept is that all things in the universe are manifestations of a single "principle" (li) and that this principle is the essence of morality.
Why were people of the eastern steppe nomadic?
* Very little rains falls on the steppe.
*Dry, windswept lands provide for poor farmland.
Describe the peoples of the eastern steppe.
* Nomadic pastoralists, constantly on the move in search of a good pasture so that their domesticated animals could graze.
*Nomads practically lived on horseback, traveling in kinship groups called clans.
* Nomads followed a seasonal pattern and returned on a regular basis to the same campsites.
What was the Pax Mongolica?
*From the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across Eurasia.
*The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to the other.
Who was Temujin and what were his accomplishments?
*Around 1200, Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership.
*In 1206 he accepts the title Ghengis Khan, or "universal ruler."
*Invades Northern Jin Empire in 1211, launching a campaign of terror across Central Asia (destroying Utrar, Samarkand, & Bukhara).
*By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.
*Ghengis died in 1227.
What were the Khanates? What purpose did they serve?
*Ghengis Khan's successors expanded Mongol territory from China to Poland. In doing so, they created the largest unified land empire in history.
*In order to rule this vast empire, the Mongols split it into four regions, or khanates.
*Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), & the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia).
*Tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to its system of government.
Who was Kublai Khan and what was the name of the dynasty that he founded?
*Ghengis Khan's grandson.
*First foreigner to ever rule all of China; controlled the Khanate of the Great Khan, eventually establishing the Yuan Dynasty in 1279 (the Dynasty lasts until 1368).
*Kublai Khan unites all of China for the first time in 300 years. He is responsible for opening China up to foreign trade and contacts.
*Moves capital to Beijing.
What contact did Marco Polo have with Kublai Khan's court?
*Traveling the Silk Roads with his Father and Uncle, he arrived at Kublai's court around 1275.
*Polo served on Khan's court for 17 years. He eventually would record his experiences in a book, spreading word of his travels around Europe.
What happened to the Mongol Empire following the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368?
*In 1368, the Yuan Dynasty is overthrown, giving way to the Ming Dynasty.
*The fall of the Khanate of the Great Khan produces a domino effect in which the last strand of Mongol rule would fall to Ivan III of Russia in 1480.
How did Japan's proximity to China influence its early history? (provide examples)
*Japan borrowed many ideas, institutions, and cultural features from the Chinese people.
*These influences include Buddhism, the Chinese system of writing, and the simple arts of everyday living (cooking, gardening, drinking tea, and hairdressing).
Describe the Heian Period of Japan.
*Heian Period: 794-1185
*Capital moves from Nara to Heian (modern day Kyoto).
*Gentleman and ladies of the royal court filled their days with elaborate rituals and aristocratic pursuits.
*Rules dictated every aspect of life, from forms of address to the color of robes that one could wear.
What characterizes the geography of Japan?
*Japan is made up of about 4,000 islands.
*The four main islands are: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Kyushu.
*The country is so mountainous that only 12% of the land is suitable for farming.
*Japan is prone to both typhoons and earthquakes.
Describe the social hierarchy of feudal Japan.
*Emperor (figurehead); Shogun (military dictator); Diamyos (lords of the land appointed by the Shogun); Samurai (warriors and protectors of the land, employed by the Diamyos); Peasents (tied to the land, loyalty is to the Diamyo).
What were the most important accomplishments of the Mongol Empire?
*Established largest empire in world history.
*Promoted trade throughout Asia.
Explain how Kublai Khan treated his Chinese subjects.
*He barred them from high political offices.
*He retained Chinese officials to serve at the local level.
Why did Feudalism develop in Japan?
*As the central government of Heian Japan faded, large landowners acquired military might and fought one another.
*Bushido: The way of the samurai.
How did new technology help the Ottomans?
*The used muskets and cannons in their conquests.
*Excellent use of gunpowder.
Define "Ottomans," "ghazis," and "sultan."
*Ottomans: Followers of Osman, the first leader of the Ottoman Empire.
*Ghazis: Anatolian Turks who saw themselves as warriors of Islam. These warriors formed military societies under the leadership of an emir, a chief commander, and followed a strict code of Islamic conduct.
*Sultan: Overlord or one with power.
How did Mehmed II conquest of Constantinople help unite the empire?
*It united Ottoman territories in Europe and Asia.
*It made trade between territories in Asia and the Balkans easier.
Why were the conquests of Selim the Grim culturally significant?
*The conquests included the religious centers of Mecca and Medina.
*Selim also acquired Cairo, an intellectual center.
Who made up the Devshirme? Who were the Janissaries?vvHow did the Devshirme and Janissaries strengthen the Ottoman Empire?
*The Devshirme was made up of boys from the peoples of conquered Christian territories.
*The army educated them, converted them to Islam, and trained them as soldiers.
*They helped to produce an efficient government bureaucracy.
*The Janissaries were an elite force of 30,000 soldiers trained to be loyal to the sultan only. Their discipline made them the heart of the Ottoman war machine.
By what means did the early Ottomans expand their empire?
*They expanded their land by buying land, forming alliances, and using new technology involving gun powder.
Why was Suleyman called the Lawgiver?
*He created a law code, simplified taxation, and reduced bureaucracy.
Describe the Safavid Empire. How did it differ from the Ottoman empire?
*Lasted from 1501-1722.
*It covered all of Iran, and parts of Turkey and Georgia.
*The state religion was Shia Islam. All other religions, and forms of Islam, were repressed.
*The Empire's economic strength came from its location on trade routes.
Why did the Safavid Empire declare independence from the Ottoman Empire?
*In 1501, the Safavid Shahs declared independence when the Ottomans outlawed Shi'a Islam in their territory.
*The Safavid leader Isma'il destroyed the entire Sunni population of Baghdad. The leader of the Ottoman Empire, Selim the Grim, would later order the execution of all Shi'a in the Ottoman Empire.
What reforms took place in the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas?
*He limited the power of the military, created armies loyal to him, began using artillery, punished corruption, and brought Christians into the land.
Who were the Mughals?
*In the 700's, warlike Muslim tribes from Central Asia carved northwestern India into many small kingdoms.
*The people who invaded descended from Muslim Turks and Afghans. Their leader was a descendant of Timur the Lame and the Mongol conqueror Ghengis Khan.
*They called themselves Mughals, which means Mongols.
What enabled Babur to found the Mughal Empire?
*Military power and skill.
*In 1526 he defeated an army led by the sultan of Delhi. He later defeated a massive rajput army.
How did Akbar demonstrate tolerance in his empire?
*He married women from different ethnic groups and abolished the taxes on Hindu pilgrims and non-Muslims.
*He governed through a bureaucracy of officials, allowing natives, foreigners, Hindus, etc. to rise to high office.
What caused Shah Jahan to build the Taj Mahal?
*He built it in memory of his wife.
Who are the Sikhs?
*A non-violent religious group whose doctrines contain elements similar to Hinduism and Sufism (Islamic mysticism).
*Under the reign of Aurangzeb they turned into a brotherhood of warriors. They built a state in Punjab, located in Northwest India.