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a layer of soil beneath earth's surface.


a climate zone with very cold winter and cold summers and little rain or snow.


moisture that falls from the sky as rain

cloud seeding

A scattering chemical into clouds to bring about rain.


A process by which a liquid, such as water turns into a vapor or gas


water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and instead flows into streams or lakes


dry with little rainfall


An unusually long period in which little or no rainfall


A geographic region with too little rainfall to support much plant life, also vegetation zone.

Tropical Cyclones

A serve storm with high winds that spiral around a calm center. Like hurricane.......etch.


The triangle-shape deposit of sand and sediment that occurs where a river flows into and ocean

rain shadow

a dry area on the downwind side of a mountain.


a pattern of weather over a long period of time


AGAINST the direction that the wind is blowing


IN the direct that the wind is blowing


A layer of gas or air that surrounds earth.

Atmosphere pressure

the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on any point of the surface of earth.


A long narrow stretch out land that is surrounded by water on three sides


A seasonal wind


an overcrowded, dirty area of a city where the housing is usually in very poor condition.

Capital City

A city that is the governmental center of a country or region.

Orographic effect

A precipitation that occurs when moisture air rises up the side of a mountain. As air rises, it cools down and releases most of the moisture as rain or snow.

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