Ch. 19 Conventional Energy Sources
Terms in this set (38)
a hard black rock rich in energy created by compressed decaying carbon rich plant matter from ancient swamps and marshes that was covered by sediment. 24 MJ/Kg.
Pros- resources are vast, extraction is relatively cheap and is simple to use. Cons-combustion releases lots of CO2, NOx, SOx, Mercury, Arsenic, Chromium, Lead, and Uranium
a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons that is present in certain rock strata and can be extracted and refined to produce fuels including gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil; oil.
-can be extracted easily
-powers almost all types of vehicles
-extracts at a low cost
-crucial element in industries
-produces toxins such as carbon monoxide
-risk of oil spills
-huge influence on economy
a naturally occurring flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel. Emissions: CO2
a gray, dense radioactive element that is used as fuel in nuclear reactors
A self-sustaining reaction in which the fission of nuclei produces subatomic particles that cause the fission of other nuclei
The mining of minerals from surface pits
gaseous fuel, especially methane, produced by the fermentation of organic matter
the extraction of minerals and ores from underground. It consist of digging shafts into the earth for ore.
overlying layers of noncommercial sediments that must be removed to reach a mineral or coal deposit
traditional unit for heat that measures the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
using intense physical or chemical methods to clean and repair severely degraded or even totally barren sites; the repairing of human-damaged land
deposits of a semi-solid hydrocarbon called bitumen mixed with sand and clay
a neutron-absorbing material inserted into spaces between fuel assemblies used to regulate fission reactions
a natural or artificial process by which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and held in solid or liquid form.
pumping of a hydraulic fluid mixture of sand, water, and other chemicals into the earth to break porous rocks like shale to release natural gases
organic compounds that consist entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. These types of molecules are the simplest components of petroleum products
when global production of oil reaches the maximum and begins to decline.
Action of purifying a liquid, usually oil, by heating and cooling to give the liquid different densities
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, international cartel that increases or decreases oil prices by limiting supplies; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, and UAE are prominent members
Solid waxy mixture of hydrocarbons found in oil shale rock
effective air pollution control device for removing particles and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams through the use of a liquid
black lung disease
inflammation and fibrosis caused by accumulation of coal dust in the lungs or airways
a group of energy sources that were formed from ancient plants and organisms during the Carboniferous Period, approximately 360 to 286 million years ago, prior to the age of dinosaurs.
pressurized water reactor
a nuclear reactor in which the fuel is uranium oxide clad in zircaloy and the coolant and moderator is water maintained at high pressure so that it does not boil at the operating temperature of the reactor.
Mercury & Air Toxics Standards
In 2011, citing its authority under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule (commonly known as the MATS rule) limiting the amount of mercury and other toxic air pollutants emitted by power plants.
the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States.
A fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in solid organic material called kerogen. When heated the kerogen liquefies to produce a fluid petroleum fuel
High pressure, high density reactors that produce fuel, they create fissionable plutonium and thorium isotopes from the abundant, but stable, forms of uranium by bombarding them with high-energy neutrons
the time required for a (radioactive) isotope to decay by half of its original value
the radioactive decay process in which isotopes split apart to create two smaller atoms and large amounts of energy
a process in which two smaller atomic nuclei fuse into one larger nucleus and release energy
liquified natural gas
when natural gas (methane) is cooled, it becomes a colorless, odorless liquid that takes up about 1/600th the volume it does in its gaseous state making it convenient to ship and store
the quantity of natural resources that a company reasonably expects to extract from a given formation.
a structured group of fuel rods
a harmless but pungent-smelling gas which has been described as having the stench of rotting cabbages or smelly socks; added to natural gas to detect its presence
mountain top removal
a controversial method of coal mining in W. Virginia
small bubbles of individualized molecules of methane trapped in a crystalline matrix of frozen water
hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
The process used to extract natural gas from the deep layers of rock in which it is embedded.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chemistry - TEAS Science | PreNursingSmarterPro TEAS Guide
Environmental Geology Ch 14
Chapter 19 APES Vocab
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 16 Air Pollution
Ch. 15 Atmosphere & Climate
Ch. 20 Terms
Ch. 9 Fisheries
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Environmental Practice Final
EVS 195 Exam 3
APES exam practice
Ch. 14 Vocab