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Biology Exam 4
Terms in this set (63)
which of the following is not part of the walls of GI tract?
what is found at the back of the mouth that is important in fighting disease?
a long, muscular tube that carries food to the stomach
Voluntary phase is the beginning of food being swallowed from the mouth into the pharynx? True or False
Which of the following is not a tip for increasing heartburn?
Eat high fat meals
Chronic heartburn is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) True or False
What is secreted by the gallbladder into the small intestine to emulsify fats
Which is not a part of the small intestines
Identify the non accessory organ
Which is not part of the large intestine
Ureter carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder while Urethra carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body True or False
Which is not an organ of the urinary system?
Which of the following is made by the breakdown of amino acids in the liver
Erythropoietin is secreted by the kidneys to allow the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone to help regulate to help regulate water-salt balance. True or False
Which is not part fo the 3 regions of the kidney?
Nephrons are microscopic functional units of the kidneys that produce urine. True or False
Only 3 of these are processes involved in urine formation Which one is not
Cystitis is a localized infection of the urethra? true or False
Which of the following is found in the nephron?
pyelonephritis is not an infection of the Kidneys. True or False
function of digestive system
break down and absorbs nutrients from food; removes waste; maintains water balance
First Part of the Digestive Tract
mouth, pharynx, esophagus
six primary processes of the digestive system
Ingestion of food.
Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes.
Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body.
Digestion of food into smaller pieces.
Absorption of nutrients.
Excretion of wastes
How do we swallow food?
Voluntary phase and involuntary phase
The beginning of food being swallowed from the mouth into the pharynx
Once the food is in the pharynx swallowing becomes a reflex
The epiglottis covers the voice box to make sure food is routed into the esophagus
Food moves down the esophagus through peristalsis (rhythmic contraction)
When does a Heart burn occur
Occurs when acids from the stomach pass into the esophagus (acid reflux)
ways of decreasing heart burn
Avoid high fat meals-Don't overeat-Eat several small meals rather than the standard 3 larger meals each day-Exercise lightly
function of stomach
temporary storage of food. mixing of food with gastric juices. regulation of a slow, controlled emptying of food into the intestine.
what are the three accessory organs
pancreas, liver, gallbladder
function of pancreas
produces enzymes that digest fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acid
Enzymes secreted by the pancreas
pancreatic lipase, colipase, and cholesterol esterase
function of liver
A muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
Role of 5 digestive enzymes
-Proteases and peptidases split proteins into small peptides and amino acids.
-Lipases split fat into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.
-Amylases split carbohydrates such as starch and sugars into simple sugars such as glucose.
-Nucleases split nucleic acids into nucleotides.
large intestine includes
cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
what is normal flora
microbes that live on and in body without causing apparent harm
What are the organs of the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
what are the functions of the urinary system
Eliminates wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressre, stimulation of RBC (Red Blood Cell) formation, control of fluid electrolyte, and acid- base balance, detoxification
What are the 3 processes of urine formation?
1. glomerular filtration
2. tubular reabsorption
3. tubular secretion
What are the common disorders of the kidney?
Chronic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease
hormone secretion urinary system
Renin- secreted by the kidneys to allow the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone to help regulate water-salt balance•Erythropoietin- secreted by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production when blood oxygen is low
What are the 3 regions of the kidney?
renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis
What are nephrons
structural and functional units that form urine
mechanism that takes nitrogen across the rumen wall back to the salivary glands in order to preserve nitrogen in the system
3 steps of urine formation
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
What is the average size of the human stomach
2 fists place to each other
Mention one urethritis symptom
Burning sensation while urinating
Disorders of the Urinary System
Urinary tract infections - burning sensation during micturition (more common in females)
Renal calculi - kidney stones
Bladder cancer - 3% of cancers (more common in men)
Kidney cancer - arises from epithelial cells of urine tubules
pathway of urine formation
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
How can kidney failure be treated?
By organ transplant or dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function
Filters waste from the blood like urea, water, salt and proteins.
what can you learn from a urine analysis
amount of blood and bacteria in the urine
the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule
How do the kidneys maintain homeostasis?
filter waste from blood
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood
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