65 terms

Photosynthesis/Cellular Respiration

an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
light reactions
the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast
a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color
a green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis
a class of pigments that are present mostly in plants and that aid in photosynthesis
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
primary electron acceptor
in chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
Calvin cycle
a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
carbon fixation
the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide, such as in photosynthesis
one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur
CAM pathway
a water-conserving, carbon-fixing process; CAM plants take in carbon at night and fix it into various organic compounds and release it during the day
C4 pathway
a carbon fixation pathway in
which CO2 is incorporated into four-carbon
cellular respiration
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
pyruvic acid
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis; broken down into carbon dioxide in a series in reaction during Krebs Cycle
the reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration
describes a process that does not require oxygen
aerobic respiration
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
alcoholic fermentation
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal
mitochondrial matrix
the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism
Krebs cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy; major step in aerobic respiration
oxaloacetic acid
a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid
citric acid
a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
biochemical pathway
complex series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
low CO2 and high O2
limit carbon fixation in Calvin Cylce
organic compounds
product of Calvin Cycle from ATP and NADPH
light reactions store energy absorbed from sunlight as this
rate of photosynthesis increases as rate of light intensity_____.
Until rate of photosynthesis levels off, (increasing/decreasing) levels of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis.
rate of photosynthesis increases as rate of temperature (increases/decreases)over a certain range.
aerobic respiration
cellular process that produces large amounts of ATP
glucose; oxygen
raw materials needed for cellular respiration
needed to begin glycolysis
where most of cellular respiration takes place in eukaryotic cells
Carbon Dioxide
produced by alcoholic fermentation that makes bread dough rise
alcoholic fermentation
Human body cannot use this as an energy source
water and carbon dioxide
waste products of cellular respiration
electron transport chains
produces the most ATP
light-dependent reactions
photosynthetic membrane is not the site of this
Calvin cycle produces this
light-dependent reactions produce this during photosynthesis
NADPH, hydrogen ions, ATP oxygen
products of light-dependent reactions
electron transport
most of the ATP produced during aerobic respiration in made by these
produced in light dependent reactions and source of energy for Calvin cycle
chemical energy
light energy in photosynthesis concerted into this
oxygen debt
build up of lactic acid in muscle cells can cause this
convert ADP into ATP
electron transport chains uses high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to _______.
Photosystem II
photosystem that produces ATP and send excited electrons to the other
photosystem I
photosystem that produces NADPH for energy
where glycolysis occurs
mitochondrial matrix
where krebs cycle occurs
mitochondrial membrane
where electron transport occurs