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an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis
a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
a green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
primary electron acceptor
in chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
a water-conserving, carbon-fixing process; CAM plants take in carbon at night and fix it into various organic compounds and release it during the day
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis; broken down into carbon dioxide in a series in reaction during Krebs Cycle
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy; major step in aerobic respiration
a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
complex series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
Until rate of photosynthesis levels off, (increasing/decreasing) levels of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis.
rate of photosynthesis increases as rate of temperature (increases/decreases)over a certain range.
convert ADP into ATP
electron transport chains uses high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to _______.
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