230 terms

Public Speaking, an Audience-Centered Approach : Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY
Empowerment
Having resources, information, and attitudes that lead to action to achieve a desired goal
Source
The public speaker
Encode
To translate ideas and images into verbal or nonverbal symbols
Code
A verbal or nonverbal symbol for an idea or image
Message
The content of a speech and the mode of its delivery
Decode
To translate verbal or nonverbal symbols into ideas and images
Channel
The visual and auditory means by which a message is transmitted from sender to receiver
Reciever
A listener or an audience member
External Noise
Physical sounds that interfere with communtication
Internal Noise
Physiological or psychological interference with communication
Feedback
Verbal and nonverbal responses provided by an audience to a speaker
Context
The environment or situation in which a speech occurs
Rhetoric
The use of words and symbols to achieve a goal
Declamation
The delivery of an already famous speech
Elocution
The expression of emotion through posture, movement, gestures, facial expression, and voice
Speech Topic
The key focus of the content of a speech
General Purpose
The overarching goal of a speech-to inform, persuade, or entertain
Specific Purpose
A concise statement of the desired audience response, indicating what you want your listeners to remember, feel, or do when you finish speaking
Central Idea
A one-sentence summary of the speech context
Main Idea
The key points of a speech
Invention
The development or discovery of ideas and insights
Disposition
The organization and arrangement of ideas and illustrations
Ethics
The beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong
Free Speech
Legally protected speech or speech acts
First Amendment
The amendment to the U.S. Constitution that guarantees free speech; the first of the ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution know collectively as the Bill of Rights
Speech Act
A behavior, such as flag burning, that is viewed by law as nonverbal communication and is subject to the same protections and limitations as verbal speech
Ethical Speech
Speech that is responsible, honest, and tolerant
Accommodation
Sensitivity to the feelings, needs, interests, and backgrounds of other people
Plagerize
Present someone else's words or ideas as thought they were one's own
Plagiaphrasing
Failure to give credit for compelling phrases taken from another source
Oral Citation
The oral Presentation of such information about a source as the author, title, and year of publication
Written Citiation
The written presentation of such information about a source as the author, title, and year of publication, usually formatted according to a conventional style guide
Select
To single out a message from several competing messages
Attend
To focus on or select incoming information for further processing
Understand
To assign meaning to the stimuli to which you attend
Remember
To recall ideas and information
Prejudice
The process of forming preconceived opinions, attitudes, and beliefs about a person, place, thing, or message
Receiver Apprehension
The fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the spoken messages of others
Listening Styles
Preferred ways of making sense out of spoken messages
People-oriented Listener
Someone who is comfortable listening to others express feelings and emotions
Action-oriented Listener
Someone who prefers information that is well organized, brief, and accurate
Content-oriented Listener
Someone who prefers messages that are supported with facts and details
Time-oriented Listener
Someone who likes succinct messages
Critical Listening
Evaluating the quality of information, ideas, and arguments presented by a speaker
Critical Thinking
Making judgments about the conclusions presented in what you see, hear, and read
Fact
Something that has been proven to be true by direct observation
Inference
A conclusion based on partial information, or an evaluation that has not been directly observed
Evidence
The facts, examples, opinions, and statistics that a speaker uses to support a conclusion
Logic
A formal system of rules used to reach a conclusion
Reasoning
The process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
Rhetorical Criticism
The process of using a method or standards to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of messages
Symbols
Words, images, and behaviors that create meaning
Rhetorical Strategies
Methods and techniques that speakers use to achieve their speaking goals
Demographics
Statistical information about the age, race, gender, sexual orientation, education level, and religious views of an audience
Open-ended Questions
Questions that allow for unrestricted answers by not limiting answers to choices or alternatives
Closed-ended Questions
Questions that offer alternatives form which to choose, such as true/false, agree/disagree, or multiple-choice questions
Audience Ananlysis
The process of examining information about those who are expected to listen to a speech
Common Ground
Similarities between a speaker and audience members in attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors
Audience Adaptation
The process of ethically using information about an audience in order to adapt one's message so that it is clear and achieves the speaking objective
Demographic Audience Analysis
Analyzing an audience by examining demographic information so as to develop a clear and effective message
Sex
A person's biological status as male or female, as reflected in his or her anatomy and reproductive system
Gender
The culturally constructed and psychologically based perception of one's self as feminine or masculine
Culture
A learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people
Ethnicity
That portion of a person's cultural background that relates to a national or religious heritage
Race
A person's biological heritage
Ethnocentrism
The assumption that one's own cultural perspectives and methods are superior to those of other cultures
Socioeconomic Status
A person's perceived importance and influence based on income, occupation, and education level
Target Audiece
A specific segment of an audience that you most want to influence
Psychological Audience Analysis
Analyzing the attitudes, beliefs, values, and other psychological information about an audience in order to develop a clear and effective message
Belief
An individual's perception of what is true or false
Attitude
An individual's likes or dislikes
Value
Enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong
Situational Audience Analysis
An examination of the time and place of a speech, tha audience size, and the speaking occasion in order to develop a clear and effective message
Brainstorming
A creative problem-solving technique used to generate many ideas
Web Directory
A Web site that allows access to the World Wide Web through categories that are then broken down into evermore-specific categories
Behavioral Objective
Wording of a specific purpose in terms of desired audience behavior
Blueprint
The central idea of a speech plus a preview of main ideas
Internet
A vast collection of hundreds of thousands of computer accessible to millions of people all over the world
World Wide Web
The most popular information-delivery system of the Internet
Web Site
A location on the WWW that includes a number of related Web pages
Web Page
An individual file or screen that is part of a Web site
URL
Uniform resource locator; the address of a Web site or Web page
Browser
Software that accesses Web sites and Web pages
Hyperlink
Image, icon, or colored and underlined text on a Web page that connects the user with another Web page or Web site
Bookmark
A browser feature that allows a user to save a URL for future reference
Directory
A site that works by offering the user ever-more-specific categories of information from which to select
Search Engine
A Web site that works much like a traditional card catalog or index, allowing access to the WWW through a subject or key word search
Hit
An item in a list generated as a result of a search of the Internet
Boolean Search
An advanced Web-searching technique that allows a user to narrow a subject or key word search by adding various requirements
Stacks
The collection of books in a library
Card Catalog
A file of information about the books in a library; may be an index-card filing system or a computerized system
Periodical Index
A listing of bibliographical data for articles published in a group of magazines and/or journals during a given time period
Full-Text Database
An indexing system, available on the WWW or on CD-ROM, that provides not only bibliographic data but also full text of entries
Newspaper Index
A listing of bibliographical data for articles published in a newspaper during a given period
Preliminary Bibliography
A list of potential resources to be used in the preparation of a speech
Illustration
A story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem a speaker is discussing
Brief Illustration
An unelaborated example, often only a sentence or two long
Extended Illustration
A detailed example
Hypothetical Illustration
An example that might happen but that has not actually occurred
Description
A word picture of something
Explanation
A statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present from or existed in its past form
Definition
A statement about what a term means or how it is applied in a specific instance
Definition by Classification
A "dictionary definition" constructed by first placing a term in the general class to which it belongs and then differentiating it from all other members of that class
Operational Definition
A statement that shows how something works or what it does
Analogy
A comparison between two things
Literal Analogy
A comparison between two similar things
Figurative Analogy
A comparison between two essentially dissimilar things that share some common feature on which the comparison depends
Statistics
Numerical data that summarize facts or samples
Primary Source
The original collector and interpreter of information or data
Secondary Source
An individual, organization, or publication that reports infromation or data gathered by another entity
Opinion
A statement expressing an individual's attitudes, beliefs, or values
Expert Testimony
An opinion offered by someone who is an authority on a subject
Lay Testimony
An opinion or description offered by a nonexpert who has firsthand experience
Literary Quotation
An opinion or description by a writer who speaks in a memorable and often poetic way
Chronological Orgainization
Organization by time or sequence
Recency
Arrangement of ideas from least to most important
Topical Organization
Organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker's discretion
Primacy
Arrangement of ideas from the most to the least important
Complexity
Arrangement of ideas from the simple to the more complex
Spatial Organization
Organization based on location or postion
Cause-and-Effect Organization
Organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
Problem-and-Solution Organization
Organization focused on a problem and then various solutions or a solution and the problems it would solve
Soft Evidence
Supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference; includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, analogies, and opinions
Hard Evidence
Factual examples and statistics
Signpost
A verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving form one ideas to the next
Internal Preveiw
A statement in the body of a speech that introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses
Internal Summary
A restatement in the body of a speech of ideas that have been developed so far
Credibility
An audience's perception of a speaker as competent, trustworthy, knowledgeable, and dynamic
Anecdote
An illustration or brief story
Rhetorical Question
A question intended to provoke thought, rather than elicit and answer
Closure
The quality of a conclusion that makes a speech "sound finished"
Preparation Outline
A detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, sub points, and supporting material, and that may also include specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, internal previews and summaries, transitions, and conclusion
Mapping
Use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, sub points, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
Standard Outline Form
Numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among parts of a speech
Delivery Outline
Condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
Cliche
An overused expression
Thesaurus
An alphabetical list of words and their synonyms
Denotation
The literal meaning of a word
Connotation
The meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experience
Ethnic Vernacular
A variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
Regionalism
A word or phrase used uniquely by speaker in one part of a country
Jargon
The specialized language of a profession
Standard U.S. English
The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States
Figure of Speech
Language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
Metaphor
An implied comparison between two things or concepts
Simile
A comparison between two things that uses the word like or as
Crisis Rhetoric
Language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times
Personification
The attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas
Omission
Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
Inversion
Reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
Suspesion
Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence
Paralleslism
Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences
Repetition
Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
Alliteration
the repetition of a consonant sound several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence
Nonverbal Communication
Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
Nonverbal Expectancy Theory
A communication theory that suggests that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message
Emotional Contagion Theory
A theory suggesting that people tend to "catch" the emotions of others
Manuscript Speaking
Reading a speech from a written text
Memorized Speaking
Delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
Impromptu Speaking
Delivering a speech without advance preparation
Extemporaneous Speaking
Speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
Immediacy
The degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people
Immediacy Behaviors
Behaviors such as making eye contact, making appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distance that enhance the quality of the relationship between speaker and listeners
Volume
The softness or loudness of a speaker's voice
Articulation
The production of clear and distinct speech sounds
Dialect
A consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group of geographic region
Pitch
How high or low your voice sounds
Inflection
The variation in the pitch of the voice
Speech to Inform
A speech that teaches others new information, ideas, concepts, principles, or processes in order to enhance their knowledge or understanding about something
Pedagogy
The art and science of teaching children
Andragogy
The art and science of teaching adults
Persuasion
The process of changing or reinforcing a listeners attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
ELM (Elaboration Likelihood model) of persuasion
The theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals
Motivation
The internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
Cognitive Dissonance
The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
Self-Actualization
The need to achieve one's highest potential
Social Judgment Theory
Theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message as in the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of non commitment
Propistion
A statement that summarizes the ideas with which a speaker wants an audience to agree
Proposition of Fact
A proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
Proposition of Value
Calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
Proposition of Policy
Advocated a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior
Ethos
The term Aristotle used to refer to a speaker's credibility
Competience
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable
Trustworthiness
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest
Dynamism
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic
Charisma
Characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
Initial Credibility
The impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech
Derived Credibility
The perception of a speaker's credibility that is formed during a speech
Terminal Credibility
The final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes
Logos
Literally, "the word", the term Aristotle used to refer to logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion
Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
Generalization
An all-encompassing statement
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to a specific, certain conclusion
Syllogism
A three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
Major Premise
A general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
Minor Premise
A specific statement about an example that is liked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism
Conclusion
The logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems from the major premise and the minor premise
Casual Reasoning
Reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude that one or more of the events cased the others
Example
An illustration to dramatize of clarify a fact
Fallacy
False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
Casual Fallacy
A faulty cause and effect connection between two things or events
Bandwagon Fallacy
Reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct
Either/Or Fallacy
The oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities
Hasty Generalization
A conclusion reached without adequate evidence
Ad Hominem
An attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an ideas, rather than on the idea itself
Red Herring
Irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
Appeal to Misplaced Authority
Use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise
Non Sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an ideas or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
Pathos
Term used by Aristotle to refer to appels to human emotion
Myth
A shared belief based on the underlying values, cultural heritages, and faith of a group of people
Demagogue
A speaker who gains control over other by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners' prejudices
Report
An oral presentation of information or policy made in and related to the workplace
Public-Relations Speech
A speech designed to inform the public, to strengthen alliances with them, and in some cases recommend policy
Speech of Introduction
A speech that provides information about another speaker
Toast
A brief salute to a momentous occasion
Presentation Speech
A speech that accompanies the presentation of an award
Nomination Speech
A speech that officially recommends someone as a candidate for an office or position
Acceptance Speech
A speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor
Keynote Address
A speech that sets the theme and tone for a meeting or conference
Commencement Address
A speech delivered at a graduation or commencement ceremony
Commemorative Address
A speech delivered during ceremonies held in memory of some past event and/or the person or persons involved
Eulogy
A speech of tribute to someone who as died
After-Dinner Speech
An entertaining speech, usually delivered in conjunction with a mealtime meeting or banquet
Pun
The use of double meanings to create humor
Spoonerism
A phrase in which the initial sounds of words are switched
Malapropism
The mistaken use of a word that sounds much like the intended word
Hyperbole
Exaggeration
Understatement
Downplaying a fact or event
Verbal Irony
Saying the opposite of what one means
Wit
Relating an incident that takes an unexpected turn at the end
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