COGNITIVE BIASES A-C / 1-70

Cognitive biases and their definitions - PART I
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Terms in this set (...)

ABSENT-MINDEDNESS
Not being present, reduced awareness
ACTION BIAS
In an uncertain situation, doing sg, even if it is irrelevant, to calm the mind
ACTOR/OBSERVER BIAS
Behaving differently when playing the role of an actor/observer
AD HOMINEM REASONING
Instead of genuine discussion of the topic attacking the character/motive of the person making the argument
AFFECT HEURISTIC
Making choices on the impulse, depending on our mood
AFFECTIVE/HAPPY DEATH SPIRAL
When positive attributes of a theory/person/organization combine with the halo effect in a feedback loop, resulting in cultishness
AFFECTIVE/HEDONIC FORECASTING
Projection of one's affect / emotional state in the future
ALTERNATIVE BLINDNESS
Getting stuck in a difficult decision rather than examining further alternatives
ALTERNATIVE HISTORIES/PATHS
Assuming that a current state provides information about how it was achieved
AMBIGUITY AVERSION
Preferring known risks to uncertainty
AMBIGUITY BIAS/EFFECT / WELL-TRAVELLED ROAD EFFECT
Choosing the well-travelled road if uncertain
ANCHORING HEURISTIC / FOCALISM
The first impression/figure we are faced with biases our estimates about unrelated facts/the future
ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE/FALLACY / MISLEADING VIVIDNESS
Using a personal experience or an isolated example instead of a sound argument or compelling evidence
ANTHROPOCENTRIC THINKING
Using human analogies as a basis for reasoning about phenomena
ANTHROPOMORPHISM / PERSONIFICATION
Attributing agency to non-living objects or human capacities to living beings
APPEAL TO NOVELTY FALLACY
Prematurely claiming that an idea or proposal is correct or superior, exclusively because it is new and modern
APPEAL TO POSSIBILITY/PROBABILITY FALLACY
Taking something for granted just because it is not impossible
ARBITRARY CONCLUSION/INFERENCE
Drawing a conclusion in the absence of supporting evidence, eg. the whole world hates me
ARGUMENT FROM AUTHORITY
Believing sg to be true just because a person/organization with authority claims it is true
ARGUMENT FROM FALLACY / BAD REASON FALLACY / FALLACY FALLACY
Inferring that, just because a reasoning contains an error/fallacy, its conclusion must be false
ARGUMENT FROM FINAL CONSEQUENCES / TELEOLOGICAL FALLACY
Inferring that a reasoning is valid and sound just because its conclusion is true
ASSOCIATION BIAS
Establishing false causality between two or more phenomena
ATTENTION DECREMENT HYPOTHESIS
If tired: paying attention to info presented at the beginning, if not: paying attention to info presented recently
ATTENTIONAL BIAS
Perception affected by recurring thoughts
ATTRITION BIAS
Not counting non-respondents in results while their non-response is related to the content of the question/test
AUDIO PAREIDOLIA
Hearing voices of agents: sentences, words, phonemes where there are none
AUTHORITY BIAS
Obeying without thinking, disappearance of criticism of dictators
AUTOMATION BIAS
Depending excessively on information generated by automated systems in decision-making
AVAILABILITY BIAS/HEURISTIC
Applying available concepts rather than admitting uncertainty or ignorance: hammer is looking for nail syndrome
AVAILABILITY CASCADE
Process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its repetition in public discourse
BACKFIRE EFFECT / BELIEF/IRRATIONAL PERSEVERANCE
Believing sy more strongly when your belief or some aspect of it is challenged
BANDWAGON/GROUPTHINK/HERDING EFFECT
Withholding criticism and subscribing to irrational decisions under peer pressure
BARNUM EFFECT / FORER EFFECT / SUBJECTIVE VALIDATION / ASTROLOGER'S CERTAINTY
Seeing personal specifics in vague statements by filling in the gaps
BASE-RATE FALLACY/NEGLECT
Predicting the probability of an assumption while ignoring the set size when the base-rate changes
BECAUSE JUSTIFICATION
Justifying one's behaviour in order to be rewarded by more tolerance/helpfulness
BEGINNER'S LUCK
Assuming that virgin hands are luckier at gambling because they win equally often as experienced gamblers
BELIEF BIAS
Rationalizing anything that supports one's existing beliefs
BENEFFECTANCE / SELF-SERVING BIAS
Believing that one's failures are due to external factors and one's successes are based on intrinsic values
BIKE-SHED EFFECT / LAW OF TRIVIALITY
When faced with a complex problem: starting to focus on irrelevant details that are easier to solve
BIZARRENESS EFFECT
Remembering bizarre material better than common material: "if it bleeds it leads"
BLACK SWAN FALLACY
Mistakenly believing that the past was predictable, people conclude that the future is predictable
BLAME INSTINCT
Believing that for all evil in the world there is somone to blame
BLIND MEN AND THE ELEPHANT
Projecting one's partial experiences as the whole truth while ignoring/questioning other people's partial experiences
BLIND SPOT BIAS / BIAS BLIND SPOT
Aversion or inability to admit one's misconceptions, errors and wrongdoings
BOUNDARY EXTENSION
Remembering the background of an image as being larger or more expansive than the foreground
BYSTANDER EFFECT
Presuming someone else is going to do something in an emergency situation
CERTAINTY EFFECT / ZERO-RISK BIAS
Avoiding risk and accepting unfavourable deals when the probability of gain is high / the probability of loss is low
CHANGE BIAS
Remembering one's past performance as more difficult than it was after an investment of effort that resulted in change
CHANGE OF MEANING HYPOTHESIS / HEADER BIAS
Expecting Items to fall into the same category as the one established at the beginning
CHAUFFEUR KNOWLEDGE
The belief to know something on the basis of a few concepts
CHEERLEADER EFFECT / GROUP ATTRACTIVENESS EFFECT
Judging individuals to be more attractive when they are seen in a group
CHILDHOOD AMNESIA
The inability of remembering events of early childhood
CHOICE-SUPPORTIVE BIAS
Remembering chosen options as having been better than rejected options
CLUSTERING ILLUSION
Seeing patterns/streaks in random events or arrangements
COINCIDENCE/MIRACLE BIAS
Assigning meaning to the co-occurrence of unrelated events
CONFABULATION
Production of fabricated/distorted/misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world without the conscious intention to deceive
CONFIRMATION BIAS
Neglect of uncomfortable, contradicting facts, disconfirming evidence, biased selection of references
CONGRUENCE BIAS
Testing one's own - usually naive - hypothesis again and again instead of trying to disprove it
CONJUNCTION FALLACY
Percieving the probability of an event to be bigger if it is represented with vividness and plasticity
CONSERVATISM OR REGRESSIVE BIAS
Remembering high probabilities/frequencies lower than they were and low ones higher than they were
CONSISTENCY BIAS
Incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour
CONSPIRACY THEORIES
Finding explanations of events on the assumption that big effects must have big causes
CONTAGION BIAS/EFFECT
Believing in mysterious forces, the aversion to share molecules with the Evil
CONTEXT EFFECT
Difficulty in retrieving out-of-context memories
CONTINUED INFLUENCE EFFECT
Continuing to be influenced by a piece of information that had already been corrected or discredited
CONTRAST EFFECT
Percieving a quality to be more valid and vivid when its opposite is presented as the context
CROSS-RACE EFFECT / OWN-RACE BIAS
Recognizing faces of the race one is most familiar with more easily
CRYPTOMNESIA
When a forgotten memory returns without it being recognized as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original
CUE-DEPENDENT FORGETTING / RETRIEVAL FAILURE
Failure to recall information without memory cues
CURSE OF KNOWLEDGE
The inability to see the world from the perspective of a less knowledgable person