88 terms

Science Exam

STUDY
PLAY
biology
study of life
characteristics of living things
made of one or more cells
displays growth
organized
reproduces
responds to stimulous
requires energy
maintains homeostasis
has an origin
observation
observation of facts
inference
making a reasonable hypothesis based on facts
cohesive water molecule and how it is affected by detergent
the surface tension of a cohesive water molecule creates a "skin" on the water. detergents reduce the strength of these bond.
scienctific method
observe
collect info
form hypothesis
design experiment
conduct experiment
compare results
draw conclusion
retest alternate hypothesis(if hypothesis wrong)
report results
compare results
accepted hypothesis
additional experimentation
precision
being able to hit the target in the same place every time
accuracy
hitting the bullseye on the target but not every single time in the same place
ecology
study of relationships among living organisms and their interactions with their enviornment
control
group used for comparison to the experiment group; not exposed to the factor being tested
independent variable
the factor that is changed by the experimenter
dependent variable
results from a change in the independent variable
abiotic factor
nonliving factors in an organism's environment: rocks, grass, water
biotic factor
living factors in the environment: other species
organism
an living being; last group
population
organisms of a single species with the same location at the same time; 5th group
biological community
interacting populations in the same place at the same time; 4th group
biosphere
portion of earth that supports life; 1st group
ecosystem
biological community and its abiotic factors; 3rd group
biome
large group of ecosystems with the same climate and similar communities; 2nd group
habitat
area where organism lives
niche
role that the organism has in its enviornment
competition
one or more organisms uses a resource at the same time
predator
one who hunts other animals for food
prey
the one hunted by other animals
mutualism
beneficial; both organisms benefit
commensalism
one is benefitting and nothing is happening to the other
parasitism
one is benefitting while the other is being hurt
autotrophs
collect energy from sunlight or inorganic substances
heterotrophs
get energy from consuming autotrophs
herbivores
consume plants
carnivores
consume animals
omnivores
consume plants and animals
detritovores
scavenger organisms that consume dead animals
limiting factor
and abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms
examples of limiting factor
sunlight, climate, temp, water, nutrients, fire, soil chemistry, space, other living things
range of tolerance
an upper and lower limit that define the conditions in which an organism can survive; exceeding can result in physical stress and intolerance
primary succession
when a community becomes establised in an area of exposed rock without topsoil
secondary succession
predicatable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact
nutrient
chemical substance that an organism must obtain from its environment to sustain life and undergo life process
biomass
total mass of living matter at each trophic level
matter
anything that takes up space
climate
the average weather conditions in an area, including temp and precipitation
flow of water in water cycle
water evaporates and condenses then forms precipitation which is taken in by the land and then flows into rivers and oceans
valence electrons
outer level electrons that participate in chemical reactions
energy
ability to do work
1 law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change form
2nd law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy
entropy
measure of disorder or unusable energy in a system
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions in the body
catabolism
release energy by breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones
anabolism
use energy to build larger molecules from smaller ones
equation for cellular respiration
C6H1206+ 6O2--->6CO2+6H2O+energy
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O--->C6H12O6+O2
why is photosynthesis an anabolic reaction
it converts energy from the sun to chemical energy for use by cells
why is cellular respiration a catabolic reaction
its breaks down organic molecules
ATP
biological molecule that provides chemical energy "penny currency" of energy within the cell
which organisms carry on photosynthesis
almost all plants and some bacteria and protists
where does photosynthesis take place within the cell
chloroplasts
structure of a chloroplast
Stroma-thick fluid- where calvins cycle takes place
granum-stack of thylakoids
thylakoid-membranous sacs-where light reaction takes place
importance of chlorophyll in photosynthesis
serves as an enzyme needed to catalyze photosynthesis
where does cellular respiration take place
mitochondria
aerobic cellular respiration
requires oxygen
anaerobic cellular respirtation
does not require oxygen
glycolysis
the process where glucose is broken down into the cytoplasm
total gain of ATP during aerobic cellular respiration
34 ATP
ATP gained in glycolysis
2
ATP gained in citric acid cycle
2
ATP gained in electron transport
34
what acts as the final recepter of H and relate to overall equation
O2 acts as final receptor and it creates the H2O in cellular respiration
lactic acid fermentation formula
glucose--> lactic acid + 2ATP
lactic acid fermentation product, where it occurs, and results
product-lactic acid
occurs- in muscle tissue
result- muscle fatigue
how does surface area limit cell growth
the lower the ratio of surface area to volume the longer it takes for substances to diffuse
cell cycle
series of events in which the cell grows, prepares for division and divides to produce two daughter cells
G1 phase
cell increases in size
synthesis new proteins and organelles
S phase
DNA copies itself
G2 phase
organelles are reproducing getting ready for cell division
prophase
centrioles migrate to the poles
spindle forms
nuclear membrane and nucleolus break down
choromosomes thicken
metaphase
centrioles arrive at poles
spindle attaches to centromes
chromosomes line up at equator
anaphase
chromosomes are being pulled to poles by spindle
telophase
nuclear membrane reforms
nucleolus reappears
chromosomes unwind
centrioles disappear
cytokinesis
process that divides the cytoplasm
cancer
abnormal growth of cells due to a breakdown in cell cycle
carcinogen
cancer causing factors in environment
apoptosis
programed cell destruction
ex. removal of web between fingers
stem cell
cells that havent yet specialized but have the potential to become various types of cell
embryonic stem cell
cell obtained from the human embryo; embryo must be destroyed to obtain cell in embryotic stem cell research
adult stem cells
cells that have to yet fully specialize found certain adult tissue, no ethical issues