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U.S. History Chapters 20 & 21
Terms in this set (71)
quest for colonial empires
Alfred Thayer Mahan
this American naval officer, wrote a book called "the influence of Sea power on history." In it he said that no nation could be strong without a great navy to roam the seas, protecting its economic interests in foreign countries. The United States had to have bases overseas for the ships to be refueled and repaired. This book was read by many people.
in 1887 Hawaiian league members forced king Kalakaua of Hawaii at gunpoint to sign a new constitution. This was called the bayonet constitution. It forced Kalakaua to give up all his power and to give the United States the power to build a naval base at _____ harbor.
Government payment made to farmers
she was a Hawaiian patriot and believed in "Hawaii for the Hawaiians." She tried to overturn the bayonet constitution. The American response was to physically take over the government building and declare their own government. They did this with help from the American navy. The US minister to Hawaii declared Hawaii a US protectorate. Not wanting a bloody war, queen ________ gave up her throne.
spheres of influence
regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trade
Open door policy
declaration made by Secretary of State John Hay stated all nations should have equal access to trade and investment in China
revolt in which Chinese nationalist known as boxers attacked foreigners in order to end foreign involvement in China affairs; put down by an international force after two months.
President Theodore Roosevelt won a __________ prize for helping to bring a peaceful end to the Russo- Japanese war
for many years Cubans had been trying to gain their independence from Spain. There were several attempted revolts. Cubans, like poet _________, who participated in results were exiled, killed and battles, or put in concentration camps
William Randolph Hearst
this New York newspaper publisher published hysterical and sensational stories about Spanish atrocities in Cuba to sell newspapers and to try to get the US to go to war against Spain
US battleship that exploded in Havana harbor in 1898, although cause was never determined, the incident was a catalyst for the Spanish-American war
"Remember the Maine"
this was the war cry of the Americans during the Spanish-American war.
resolution stating that the US did not intend to take over and annex Cuba
Commodore George Dewey led Americans to an early naval victory in the Spanish American war at the battle of _________.
he was the leader of the Filipino independence fighters
US Calvary unit in the Spanish American war led by Theodore Roosevelt
guam, philippines, puerto rico, cuba
name for colonies that the Spanish lost control of due to it's loss in the Spanish-American war
philippine government act
organic act; federal law that established a governor and a two-house legislature for the Philippines, with the governor and members of the legislature's upper house appointed by the US.
US law that gave Filipinos the right to elect both houses of their legislature
which disease where the US Army doctors Walter Reed and William C. Gorgas able to eliminate almost entirely in Cuba (and later in Panama) by killing mosquitoes?
amendment to the Cuban constitution that limited Cuba's right to make treaties and authorized the US to intervene in Cuban affairs as it's saw necessary
Country dependent on another for protection
US law establishing that Puerto Rico's government upper house be appointed by the US and lower house be elected by Puerto Ricans
agreement that gave the US unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus Panama
President Theodore Roosevelt addiction to the Monro doctrine; stated that US would police affair in the Western Hemisphere to keep Europeans from intervening in the region
"speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far"
President Theodore Roosevelt used this African proverb as his motto for leadership
President William Howard Taft's policy of influencing Latin American affairs through economic incentives than military force
he was the dictator of Mexico for 34 years. After trying to steal reelection to the presidency in 1910 (which led to the beginning of the Mexican revolt), he fled to Paris, France.
struggle to end dictatorship that lead to years of instability in Mexico in the early 1900s
he was very angry at the US after we recognize Venustiano Carranza as the president of Mexico. He decided to pay the Americans back for this by attacking the "traitors." He invaded a small town in New Mexico. 18 Americans were killed in the invasion, along with 100 of his men. President Wilson sent American General John J Pershing and an American army unit chasing after him in Mexico, but we never caught him.
World War I resulted from several long-term causes. One of these causes late and growth of in the Balkans. During the 1800s, different ethnic groups in this Central European region fought for independence from the ottoman empire, which had ruled them for centuries. Following a war between the ottoman empire and Russia in 1878, several such groups state their claims to nationhood.
Austria-Hungary occupied this small Balkan kingdom bordering Serbia. Serbia saw the kingdom as part of its rightful territory. As a result, tensions between Austria Hungary and Serbia grew quickly. When Austria-Hungary annexed _________ in 1908, many observers foresaw a major conflict
glorification of military strength
in the dangerous atmosphere of early 20th century Europe, nations formed in which they promised to aid each other in case of attack. Eventually, Austria Hungary and Germany were in one. Great Britain joined France and Russia in another. These arrangements created the risk that a minor incident could trigger a major war
June 5, 1914
World War I began in June of which year when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist.
the great war
what was World War I known as until the 1930s?
World war one alliance that included Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the US, and that fought against the Central Powers
World war one alliance that included Austria Hungary, Germany, the ottoman empire, and Bulgaria
Germany's initial military strategy called for a quick and massive strike against France. In August 1914, German troops invaded north eastern France through __________.
first battle of the Marne
World War I battle in which the allies stopped a German advance near the Marne River
no man's land
Strip of bombed out territory that separated the trenches of opposing armies along the Western front during World War I
World War I military strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches
disease, lice, poisonous gas, and rats were problems that made life a nightmare for soldiers living in _______.
during which year was the war locked in a bloody stalemate?
The beginning of World War I, what was the official policy of President Woodrow Wilson and the United States?
what were U-boats?
in May 1915, the German sank a British passenger liner, the _________, off the Irish coast. Among the dead were 128 Americans. President Wilson protested angrily to the German government. He demanded that Germany abandon its policy of waging war against civilian ships.
promise issued by German officials during World War I not to sink merchant vessels without warning or without assuring the passengers' safety
National defense act
Millitary "preparedness" program established prior to the US entry into World War I that increased the size of the National Guard and the regular US Army
table sent to Mexico by Germany's foreign secretary during World War I; proposed an alliance between the two countries
which country entered World War I in April 1917?
selective service act
law that initially required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft (to sign up to fight in the war)
John J Pershing
Who was the commander of the US forces during World War I?
use of armed vessels to escort on armed merchant vessels (ships) transporting troops, supplies, or volunteers through the north Atlantic during World War I
what was the name of the World War I agency, headed by Herbert Hoover, that encouraged increased agricultural production and the conservation of existing food supplies?
war industries Board
Agency led by Bernard Baruch during World War I; I located scarced goods, established production priorities, and set prices on goods
National war labor board
Agency created during World War I to settle disputes between workers and employers
energy, gardens, bonds
conserving _______, collecting reusable materials, planting ___________ to make more items available for soldiers, and buying war ____________ that provided the government with funds to pay for supplies were ways that Americans contributed to the war effort as volunteers
mass migration of African-Americans to northern US during and after World War I
Committee on public information
Agency created in 1917 to increase public support for World War I
Federal law that outlawed acts of treason during World War I
Federal law and acted during world war one that made written criticism of the government a crime
Group of radical Russian socialists who seized power in 1917 following the overthrow of the Czar
Battle of the Argonne Forest
which 1918 battle involved a successful Allied effort to push back German troops from a rail center and Sedan , France?
The armistice that stoped fighting in World War I went into affect at the same number month, day, and hour of 1918? What is the number?
name for President Woodrow Wilson's plan, put forward in 1918, for organizing post world war one Europe and for avoiding future wars
League of Nations
International body of nations formed in 1919 to prevent wars
what was the collective name given to the US President Woodrow Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando during the peace conference at Versailles
payments for damages and expenses and war
treaty of versailles
treaty ending World War I that require Germany to pay a huge war reparations and established the league of Nations
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
U. S. History - Chapter 4
U.S. History - Chapter 2
U.S. History - Chapter 3
U. S. History - Chapter 5
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