45 terms

Honors World Unit 5

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John Locke
17th century English Enlightenment philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights
the Enlightenment idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French Enlightenment philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Rousseau
(1712-1778) Enlightenment philosopher who believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state; full of Enlightenment ideals and inspired other such documents across the world
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
First Estate
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
Second Estate
The second class of French society made up of the noblility
Third Estate
97% of the population (the rest of France) They consisted of the bourgeoisie, the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
King and Queen of France during the French Revolution; were seen as driving the country into further debt with lavish overspending; executed during the Reign of Terror
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Lost many troops attempting to invade Russia. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. Dreamed of a united South America called Gran Colombia
Napoleonic Code (1804)
Law code for France. Purpose was to reform French legal system and reflect principles of French Revolution. Equality of citizens before law and abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Sadly, any gains made by women previously were lost because of the Napoleonic code.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Enclosure Movement
The 18th century privatization of common lands in England, which contributed to the increase in population and the rise of industrialization.
Industrial Revolution
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in England in the mid-1700s; the first industries to participate were the textile industries
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
Slave revolt began in 1791

a. slaves burned down the sugar cane plantations
b. caused by existence of slavery and racial social hierarchy

Effects:
a.Haiti becomes an independent black republic and abolishes slavery.
b. Inspires further slave revolts.
c. Haiti is forced to pay reparations for the plantations and slaves to France. Debt totals 20 billion US dollars
Tennis Court Oath (1789)
Oath taken by representatives of the Third Estate in June 1789, in which they pledged to form a National Assembly and write a constitution limiting the powers of the king.
Urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities; caused by enclosure movements in England and lure of work in the city's factories
Factory System
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
means of production
farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Capitalism
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state; supported by Adam Smith
Communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole; supported by Karl Marx
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Child Labor
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills, mines, and factories for a fraction of what adults earned for up to 16 hours a day
Factory Act of 1833
An act that limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen years of age to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen years of age to twelve hours.
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Prussian chancellor who employed diplomacy and industrialized warfare and manipulation of democracy to unify Germany
Matthew Perry
commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan to foreign trade with the Treaty of Kanagawa; previously Japan had been practicing "sakoku" or "closed country" policies
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. Returned or "restored" the power of the emperor, taking power from the shoguns
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Often involves economic exploitation
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests and colonization in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. Driven by a desire for resources, wealth, and power.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion; reinforced racist ideals
Opium War
a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China; Britain was illegally importing opium to China as a way of forcing trade relations; Britain wanted access to China's porcelain, silk, and especially tea; China lost these wars which led to Europeans establishing "spheres of influence" within China's borders
Spheres of Influence in China
an area where a foreign nation controlled economic developments in China such as railroad construction and mining; example: Hong Kong
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
Treaty which ended the first Opium War and limited Chinese sovereignty because of the concessions to England - Hong Kong, money, low tariffs, open five ports to trade, and access for foreigners
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Sepoy Rebellion (1857)
Revolt of Indian soldiers against the British; caused by a military practice in violation of the Muslim and Hindu faiths
Indian National Congress (INC)
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government and later Indian independence