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ap euro chapter 12 peeps
Terms in this set (23)
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England 1558-1603. Final break with the Roman Catholic Church. Spaish Armada defeated. She was Protestant, vain, fickle, prejudiced, and miserly. She was an uunusually successful ruler and never married. "Virgin Queen"
Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics.
Mary Stuart (Queen of Scots)
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and executed
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Philip II of Spain
The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was an intolerant, Catholic king.
A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I. Tried to keep Europe religiously united.
Duke of Alva
sent by Phillip II to "pacify" Netherlands, establishes Council of Blood- 12,000 people killed in one day
Margaret of Parma
Half Sister of Phillip, Regent of The netherlands. Warned him that if he brings the inquistions to the netherlands, the Dutch would revolt. Then he sent Duke of Alba.
Hero of Lepanto and half brother to Philip II and governor of Netherlands in 1576. Plot to put Mary, Queen of Scots, on English throne. Use Netherlands as staging ground for invasion of England. His plotting causes Elizabeth to make alliance with the Netherlands patriots. d. in 1578. Succeeded by Duke of Parma.
Duke of Medina-Sidonia
admiral of the Spanish Armada
William of Orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain. Calvinist
founder of French Calvinism "Huguenots"
Henry II of France
The son of Francis I and husband of Catherine de' Medici, he died in a jousting accident. His son Francis II then took over the kingdom at a young age, and established new measures against protestants in the edict of chateaubraint.
Henry III of France
signed Edict of Beaulieu in 1576 granting many concessions to huguenots, instigating the wrath of Henry of Guise and his Catholic League
Henry Of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
politique who wrote "The Six Books on the State" which outlined the first systematic & clear conception that absolute sovereignty resides in the nation regardless of the forms of government. The "state" was an absolute sovereign that tolerated no rival legal authority above it except God. Contributed to the rise of absolutism in Europe
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II (Valois). She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
(1544-1560) The oldest son o Henry II; married to Mary Queen of Scots; allowed the Guise family to control him
the chief minister of Louis XIII who ran the French government from 1624 to 1642. he was a political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe. he set out to destroy the power of the nobles and the Huguenots who were protected by the Edict of Nantes. He strengthened France economically and appointed intendants.
Holy Roman Empire during 30 Years War, led the Catholic forces and won the first half
Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia and Hungary who waged war against Protestant forces (1578-1637)
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
Albrecht of Wallenstein
mercenary hired by Ferdinand II to lead the Catholic army; ruthless, loyal only to self, broke Protestant resistance with many victories; killed because he was threatening
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