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Reproductive Physiology exam 4
Terms in this set (114)
Germ cell (ovum) surrounded by one layer of follicular (granulosa) cells
formed during parental period.
highest number of follicles found
maximum number of primary follicles found in a calf.
Ovum plus 2 or more layers of granulosa cells
ovum with many layers of granulosa cells
mature 3' follicle
in single ovulators, the single follicle that ovuates.
in litter barers a number of follicles reach this stage at once
structure of the follicular wall that has blood supply
structures of the folliclular wall that does not have blood supply.
development of the female gametes.
number of potential oocytes is FIXED and ________________ at birth.
oocytes become arrested in __________________
oocytes starting development before puberty become_________________
ovulation occurs ______________________ after LH surge except in mare.
ovary except hilus
where is the site of ovulation in cow, sow, and ewe.
where is the site of ovulation in mares.
form syngamy to first division is completed
for 2-cell stage until differentiation is completed
from completion of differentiation to parturition
whole product of conception at any stage of development including placenta
process of cellular division
continues from first division to hatching of blastocyst
first cleavage yields a 2-cell_____________
all divisions during first cleavage are ______________
embryo will hatch out of zona pellucida
period of elongation
matabolic rate increases
when embryo becomes fixed in position and physical contact of placenta with maternal organism is established.
during implantation in farm animals the embryo remains in the ________________
implantation forms loose connection with uterine wall by proteins called____________________
time when cells are forming specific organs in body of embryo.
stage of differentiation can become any cell.
can become a number of tissue types
can become only a defined cell type.
inner most germ layer.
middle layer of germ layers.
outer layer of germ layers
the wall of the yolk sac
where to the gametes come from
inner most membrane, folds around embryo, forms amnionic cavity.
present during early gestation
contains source of nutrients for early embyro
regresses by time of implantation
outpouching of hindgut of embryo, connects to embryoinc bladder.
outer most layer, allantois enlarges and fuses with this
______________________ gives rise to placenta
all farm species have ___________________ type of placenta.
outer layer of allantois fuses with_________________
project into uterine endometrium to increase the area for nutrient and waste exchange.
assists in the use of fatty acids rather than carbohydrates for energy.
gestation length of swine
gestation length of sheep
gestation length of cattle
gestation length of mare
which sex 1-2 days longer of gestation.
placental function is responsible for transmissions of nutrients to the __________________
transmission of nutrients to fetus and excretion of wastes
what are the two main functions of the placenta
yolk sac regresses by time of _________________________
Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus, PROTECTS
difference in gestation between similar species (i.e Mule foal, and mare foal) can be due to ________________
number of parturition a female has EXPERIENCED
female who has borne no offspring
female who has borne one offspring
a female who has given birth two or more times
infection of the uterus
number of pregnancies, with or without delivering offspring
describes something perfectly normal
vaginal discharge after childbirth
lochia discharge is due to continued release of ___________ from the uterus
first estrus that occurs shortly after parturition, 8-15 days postpartum
suckling of progeny
nutrition of dam: prepartum and postpartum
age of dam
season of the year
factors affecting length of postpartum anestrus
Period from parturition to the subsequent conception
ewes postpartum period is complicated by __________________________
dairy cows cycle ________________ days postpartum
cows are usually bred on __________________ estrus
when an animal ovulates, but will not stand to be mounted
-a synthetic "man made" prostaglandin hormone which "lysis" or dissolves the CL
- Brings cattle into heat
- Aborts pregnancy
how many glands does a cow udder contain
2 glands with 1 teat each
2 glands with 1 teat each
4 secretory regions fused into 2 glands
4-9 pairs of glands located along both sides of midline
the first milk produced immediately after parturition
higher in protein and vitamin A than milk
stimulates milk production
necessary for continued lactation
essential for milk RELEASE
oxytocin is released by _________________________
A mature egg cell
A layer of cells, derived from the granulosa cells of an ovarian follicle, that surrounds the ovum after ovulation.
a necessary and irreversible step in fertilization, which is triggered by sperm receptor, in which the sperm's and ovum's membranes fuse and the sperm penetrates the zona pellucida.
they only have one set of chromosomes
When _________________ is complete fertilization is complete
after syngamy the _________________ is formed
fertilization by more than one sperm
released when sperm makes it through the ovums membrane
membrane that surrounds the yolk, fuses with sperm head
Prevents second sperm from entering an egg, when cortical granules spill their content.
zona pellucida 1 2 and 3
what are the 3 proteins involved in sperm breaking through the ovum membrane.
daughter cell divisions
solid ball of cells you can not tell the difference in
outer cells of the blastocyst that secrete enzymes that allow implantation
inner cell mass
The mass of cells in the blastocyst that ultimately give rise to the embryo and other embryonic structues (the amion, the umbilical vessels, etc.)
inner cell mass is the ___________________
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo
the first true differentiation step in development takes place when the embryo becomes _________________
an animal is a __________ it is always the result of being a twin
when does sexual differentiation begin
a ball of cells created by cleavage divisions is called
which placenta hormones will help regulate growth
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