Terms in this set (40)
Theory/concept of int relations where by self interested states compete to maximize global power by improving security (military). by charles tilly that determines the legitimacy of a govt based on its military rule. Might is right, protection racket, barrel of the gun
monopoly over the legitimate use of force
The state as any organization that succeeds in holding the exclusive right to use, threaten, or authorize physical force against residents of its territory. This notion was brought forth by Sociologist Max Weber & supported by Tilly who claimed that the state's main priority is to properly use force for the protection of its citizens from any outside force.
war-making as state-making
Concept by Charles Tilly that correlates the success of a state based on its ability to protect its citizens from outside infiltration. This kind of protection is important, says Tilly, because it is a states obligation to act as a protection racket from any bordering enemies. This way the state can focus on internal matters of the state.
World Systems Theory
theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three- tier structure (core, periphery and semi periphery), proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world. This is important because it stems from the idea that states are controlled by its capitalists who revolve a society around the idea that the purpose of a state should be for the production for profit in the global market.
This is a subset of identity categories in which eligibility for membership in a group is determined by attributes associated with descent. This is important in understanding many conflicts within and among nations as there tends to be struggle between ethnic groups.
The theory that ethnicity/identity can be traced back to "the beginning of time" and is birth-given. This relevant because it is illustrated in conflicts such as that between Israel and Palestine over who has the right to control Jerusalem.
A theory in which identity is used as an instrument to serve certain ends. This is important because politicians today often use identity in this way to appeal to certain groups and secure their votes. For example in the 2016 election Donald Trump would often appeal to Christian ideologies to help secure him the vote of that group.
A concept by Benedict Anderson in which he describes a nation as a community imagined by those who feel they are a part of it. This concept highlights the importance of National identity over any other. Moving away from focus on the individual, but rather the nation.
derives from the ideas and personal charisma of the leader, a person whose authoritative persona charms and psychologically dominates the people of the society to agreement with the government's régime and rule. A charismatic government usually features weak political and administrative institutions, because they derive authority from the persona of the leader, and usually disappear without the leader in power. However, if the charismatic leader has a successor, a government derived from charismatic legitimacy might continue. (Max Weber) An example of this is the leader of Turkmenistan
The foundation that creates patterns based on rules and procedures that govern human behavior. Institutions are embedded in people's lives as norms or values that are not easily changed. This is important bc it tells us How power is structured and distributed.
A form of government in which an elite (economic, social, or political) are in charge of the government and decision making. This is important because knowing different regime types can help explain how countries operate. Ex: Russia is an oligarchy with a group of billionaires highly influencing government decisions.
A hybrid regime named by Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way that is a regime that is democratic in appearance but authoritarian in nature. A civilian regime in which democratic institutions exist in form but not in substance, because the electoral, legislative, judicial, media, and other institutions are so heavily skewed in favor of current power holders. Ex: Eastern european countries and most Latin American countries post cold war
A political system in which the central government has exclusive control across territory. This is important because most democracies are unitary systems.
A political system in which two or more government's have overlapping authority resulting in a dispersal of power. This is relevant because many of the most populous democracies are federal systems, as they have more people to govern.
A system of government where a chief executive of government, elected by the people, leads a separate executive branch. This is important because it is the most common form of executive-legislative relation in the Americas, and the system of the United States.
democratic form of governing that provides a faster easier way to pass legislation. a system of government in which the executive and legislative branches are fused together. (The majority party in the legislature selects the chief executive and also may dismiss the head of the executive.) allows for more political parties to be a part of govt as opposed to majoritarian system that allows for a 2 party system.
The ability of a country's high court to invalidate laws enacted by the legislative or executive branch by declaring them unconstitutional. Majority of democracies have this and it was institutionalized in the U.S. by Marbury v. Madison. This is important because it is one of the main checks and balances of government.
proportional representation system
This is an electoral system which seats in a constituency are divided based on votes for each party, focusing on the inclusion of minorities. This system is common in Europe This is important because it illustrates the priority of the countries for representation of minority interests and diversity over a quick and efficient government.
deeply divided societies
Nations that face problems with the diversity of their country due to historical grievances, deep identity cleavages, which present as obstacles to democratization of a country. Important because it raises the question of whether or not diversity hurts democracy.
A strategy of including all significant communal groups in political decision making, particularly at the executive level. This is important bc it helps divided societies by ensuring all groups have an input in the decision making process. An example: Lebanon secures the presidency for one group and the prime ministership for another.
A theory that requires that the moral or political rules that regulate common life be justifiable to all people affected by said rules. This stems from the ideas of Hobbes, Kant, and Rousseau. This is important because it may serve as a standard to assess moral and political rules. Ex: political values of freedom and equality are justified by public reason.
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president. A body of electors chosen by a larger electorate to appoint leaders. Important to know the way in which the US elects people to hold the highest position, the executive.
Order without tyranny
One of the ideals Madison laid out in the Federalist Papers, arguing that the U.S. government must be able to keep structure and peace without assuming the role of the monarchs of England they were trying to escape. This is important because it is one of the founding principles that's influence we can see in our divided government and system of checks and balances.
Ideal of the founding fathers that the group who has the best abilities and therefore the "right" to govern arises out of work and competition, not birthright. Thomas Jefferson was a main proponent of this. This is important because it is a founding principle in the U.S. that distinguished our new country from England.
The deprivation of the right to vote by law. Before the 2018 midterm elections 6.1 mil citizens were disenfranchised, until Florida reinstated the right to vote to people who have been disenfranchised by committing felonies
things you have freedom from. Concept that explains that people have the freedom from outside interference. (isaiah berlin) US constit design and the theory as to how our institutions are formed which are based on the idea of neg liberty. The founding of the US is founded on these ideals; the US' people are being protected from too much govt to infringe on their rights.
State legislatures redrawing districts to secure place in office. Type of gerrymandering that allows for a certain party to stay in office. This is important because it explains how a party may acquire more seats, despite not receiving the most votes in reality. Provides insight into modern corruption and how political races have morphed into a battle for control more so than directly reflecting the will of the people
A concept by Tocqueville of institutions that are voluntary communities of people linked by common interests. He thought this would strengthen democracy as it is separate from and counters government and business. This important because it provides insight into the community-based spirit America arguably once-possessed and our previous abilities to self-govern.
Argument presented by several asian leaders justifying why authoritarian rule is better for asian regions instead of western democracy. They claim it is due to roots of Confucianism and values of loyalty to family and the state. Lee Quan Yu (Singapore). This is important because understanding the cultures of other countries can provide insight into why they may reject parts of democracy.
(Isaiah Berlin) is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will. This is relevant because it is the basis for democracy and the ability for citizens to exercise their free will, as free citizens, particularly in U.S. politics.
A theory by Adam Przeworksi that creates a metaphor of democracy as a casino, questioning whether or not the players will continue to play a certain game despite losing, if there is still a chance to win. Democracy causes political actors to think of the future rather than caught up in present outcomes, like losing an election. This is relevant because it offers an explanation as to why political actors accept defeat and continue to participate in the democratic process.
Concept from Tocqueville, fear of a despotism within a democratic nation, fear of large government. Important because it relates the importance of democratic individualism and democratic apathy.
an idea by Welzel and Inglehart, acquisition by ordinary people of resources & values that enable them to effectively pressure elites to take action. This is important because it explains how the ordinary people can exercise their will in a society where the elite heavily influence the government
Based on the selectorate theory, this is a body of unelected people who select the leader of a state. This is important because depending on the countries selectorate, it shows how free or democratic their nation is.
The problem with balancing limited and effective government, minimizing self interested politicians, all while maintaining government stability. This is important because it questions where authority lies. A crucial part of govt is knowing how to separate and limit the authority that balances power and freedom. If it leans too far in either direction the result will be tyranny or anarchy.
Theory by Tilly where a higher power (the government) eliminates or neutralizes outside forces. Govt poses a threat but charges for the reduction of that threat. Relevant because according to Tilly, its the basis for establishing a nation state.
clash of civilizations
When people of different beliefs come together, they inherently come into conflict with one another. This is important because it helps in the understanding of how different civilizations have conflict and how it shapes the govt they belong to. Theory brought forth by Samuel Huntington, important to politics because shaped world view post cold war.
A nation state, in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group inhabits a territory and has formed a state that it predominantly governs. It is a more precise concept than "country", since a country need not have a predominant ethnic group. Relevant because Nation-states are still located around the world are often facing conflicts with one another. But in a world where countries are becoming more diverse, the concept of the nation state will be began to disappear
majoritarian electoral system
This is an electoral system which allow the majority of the electors to appoint all the representatives, prioritizing efficiency of governance over the representation of minorities. This includes plurality and majority rule systems. This is important because understanding a country's electoral system can provide insight into their priorities and effectiveness.
Myth of the self-made man
rugged individualism that served to justify capitalism by claiming that the industrial economy was not reducing but expanding opportunities for all individuals to succeed and become wealthy through hard work. Most tycoons were not the self made men they claimed to be (already privileged). this is important because it was one of the founding principles of the american economic system and one of the core beliefs of the founding fathers