The Classical Civilizations
Classical Civilizations Review
Terms in this set (50)
In this Greek polis, democracy was invented. Only free men in this polis voted. Women, slaves and foreigners did not vote.
It was a militaristic city-state. All Greek men in this polis served in the military.
These Spartan slaves farmed while the men of Sparta served as soldiers. There were five slaves to every one Spartan soldier. To prevent slave rebellion, Spartans were very cruel to their slaves.
In this political system, citizens vote on all matters such as whether to raise taxes or engage in warfare.
This geographic feature separated the Greek city-states. Therefore, the Greeks had many independent cities with independent governments although all inhabitants of all city-states spoke Greek and prayed to Greek gods.
Due to its peninsula and islands, the Greeks had a great location for this economic activity.
In Athenian democracy, they could not vote. Like slaves and foreigners, they were not allowed to vote.
This king of the Persian Empire (the Achaemenid Empire) was religiously tolerant. He allowed the Hebrews to return to their holy land and prayed in the temples of conquered subjects.
This religion taught that the world was a battleground between good and evil. This religion was adopted by the Achaemenid Dynasty in Persia.
It connected the entire length of the Achaemenid Empire. It allowed for the movement of troops and for trade.
They were royal governors in the Achaemenid Empire. They were the eyes and ears of the king. As the king could not be in the same place at the same time, his governors watched his conquered subjects.
It was adopted by the Qin Dynasty in China. It taught that people were inherently selfish and that only strict laws and harsh punishments ensured good behavior.
China receives its name from the Qin Dynasty. This dynasty ensured this or that everyone in the empire had the same writing system and the same system of weights and measures.
This emperor of the Qin Dynasty was a harsh ruler. He adopted Legalism and burned Confucian books. He also murdered Confucian scholars.
The Han Dynasty
This dynasty overthrew the Qin Dynasty. It adopted Confucianism as its official philosophy and appointed officials to government service based on competency and education.
This Confucian belief encourages children to honor and obey parents and ancestors.
The Five Relationships
According to Confucius, individuals must know their roles and act accordingly. A son (inferior) must obey his father (superior). These roles are known as this.
Eventually to work in government service, a man had to take a test. This idea is known as this in China. It could also be called a civil service system.
Limited Social Mobility
Any man could take the test in China for government service. Education, however, was privately funded and thus it would be difficult for a poor man to hire a tutor, study and pass the test. A few gifted commoners did pass. As such, this existed in the Han Dynasty.
The Silk Roads
These trading routes connected China to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Only luxury goods were transported on these routes. Cultural diffusion also occurred as merchants from diverse backgrounds met through trade.
In Han China, women had this. When a girl baby was born, she was placed under a bed to show that she would not be a powerful or high person but rather that she would serve others.
He was the founder of India's first empire. He conquered a vast territory but eventually converted to Jainism, a religion of complete peace.
After a bloody battle, the battle of Kalinga, he renounced violence and sought to live and rule peacefully.
It was the religion that Asoka converted to. It taught the existence of suffering and the end of suffering.
These Buddhist shrines hold the relics of the Buddha.
It was the golden age of Sanskrit culture. Great advances in math and science occurred in this Indian Empire. The concept of zero, the decimal system, and the concept of infinity were discovered.
It is the holy language of the Hindu religion.
In this political system, citizens vote for representatives. It was invented in Rome.
These wealthy landowners were the ruling elite of Rome. Only Patricians could vote and serve as Senators.
They were the common folk or working class of Rome. They served as citizen-soldiers and wanted more rights. They could not vote or serve as Senators.
In Latin, it means to "say no" - eventually the representative of the plebeians had the right to veto laws.
This individual was a representative of the Plebeians. He could veto a law.
He was made dictator for life but Roman senators assassinated him to try to prevent Rome from ceasing to be a republic.
After the death of Julius Caesar, this happened to Rome as competing factions and personages fought for power.
He was the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
It was a time of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire. It began with the reign of Augustus Caesar.
The Twelve Tables
These were the written laws of Rome. They provided for equality for all classes before the law and assumed that a person was innocent until proven guilty.
Government and Law
It was in these areas that the Romans made the greatest contributions such as the creation of a Republic and the Twelve Tables.
Rome was centrally located in this sea. It allowed the Romans to trade with three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa.
Rome was located on this geographic feature, a feature surrounded on three sides by water.
These mountains in the north of the Italian peninsula protected the Romans.
This Han emperor established an imperial academy to train officials for government service.
It is male dominance. Men have more power than women.
It is a completely nonviolent religion, a religion that Chandragupta Maurya converted to.
It is the spread of cultural ideas and objects from one culture to another culture.
In Confucianism, these individuals had low status as they traveled far from parents and ancestors.
They are members of the highest caste of the Hindu caste system. They are priests.
The Romans conquered land on three continents: this continent, Asia and Africa..
In this civilization, important ideas and inventions are created that influence people for generations to come.
It was the language of the Romans.
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