162 terms

Human Communication in Organizations

term used to explain how people differ by gender, age, ethnicity, physical abilities, religious affiliation, and sexual orientation; differences are grounded in culture
favoritism or differences in treatment of individuals because of the attributes of diversity that set them apart from others
a broad term that explains why people from various nations and co-cultures (groups different from mainstream populations in those countries) act and speak as they do, is learned
Culture "conditioning"
shapes the way we view the world and interact with each other
identifiable differences within the larger culture by region, occupation, generation etc.
exist alongside larger culture; might have things in common
belief in the superiority of one's own culture
a negative preconception about people, activities, or places based upon personal experience, hearsay, or other incomplete data
International cultural communication
communication between representatives of different nations; messages filtered through a set of cultural expectations
Interracial cultural communication
communication between people with physical differences
Interethnic cultural communication
communication between people who identify themselves as members of different ethnic groups
Cross-cultural Communication
communication between people from two cultures
Glass ceiling
a barrier that is not visible but is real enough to keep women from top-management positions in many businesses and professions
Sexual harassment
this includes (1) inappropriate demands made on an employee by a fellow worker or supervisor (2) the development of uncomfortable and un professional work environments
a person's learned likes and dislikes
a person's judgments about right and wrong, true or not true
a person's deep cultural assumptions that affect all areas of life
Language culture
the means by which we represent ourselves and the means by which we interpret others
Diversity in workplace
can contribute to richer organizational environment; variety of viewpoints, greater productivity, but requires sensitivity
Diversity barriers
lack of knowledge of differences, lack of communication and understanding, stereotyping, inflexible organizational schedules, discomfort, unreasonable expectations for quick change
How to communicate in a diverse organization
understand your own perspective, appreciate the perspective of others, achieve positive outcomes from diverse conflict
R. Roosevelt Thomas
"Beyond gender and race", diversity + effective conflict management= beneficial organizational change (costs are cut, attract better employees, better ideas, diverse insights)
Valuing diversity
self analysis and self awareness of communication behaviors, when conflicts arise, examine the topics of conflict, commit to change
Intercultural communication
communication between people of different national cultures, messages filtered through culturally embedded expectations, tendency to judge behavior of others against our own cultural expectations (lead to ethnocentrism), can lead to pseudo-conflict
Barriers of Intercultural Communication
difficulty imagining the other's perspective, lack of knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, most cultural assumptions are out of awareness, stereotyping, all people are alike
Improve barriers of intercultural communication
learn more along cultural dimensions, individualism and collectivism
person's identity from their own personal activities and experiences
personal identity bound up with the group
level of involvement people display in conversation and other interactions with people (haptics and proxemics); high contact=more physical contact, closer proximity ; low contact=reserved
Uncertainty avoidance
degree of individual and/or societal tolerance for uncertainty, or ambiguity in their interaction; high concern is resistant to change and less tolerant of conflict and competition; low concern is more apt to take risks, change encouraged
High context
emphasis on nuances of nonverbal communication; what is NOT said, what is done, people may infer from the situation
Low context
emphasis on language, what is said carries most of the meaning
Power distance
how much the less powerful members expect and accept that power is distributed unequally
Low power distance culture
expect/accept power relations that are more democratic, relate to each other more as equals regardless of formal positions
High power distance culture
less powerful, accept power relations
Masculine, paternal cultures
emphasis on assertion, competition
Feminine cultures
emphasis on rapport, community, cooperation, negotiated relationships
coordinates and organized activities
influences people and their behavior
set of behaviors
setting goals and outlining steps to achieve those goals
the process of accumulating and coordinating the human and capital resources necessary to undertake a plan
generating commitment and support for a plan
using authority and power to ensure that a plan succeeds
Technical skills
the ability to use data, information, innovations, and techniques
Human skills
the ability to work with people to accomplish goals
Conceptual skills
the ability to see your job in its relationship to the entire organization and to recognize how the organization interacts with its environment
occurs when each party gives up something in exchange for something else
a characteristic resulting from a strong commitment to ethical behavior within the organization's system of values
a characteristic resulting from listening to others, using clear and respectful language, and relying on appropriate techniques for behavior control
giving people the opportunity to think and act for themselves within the guidelines of the shared values and vision of the organization
the ability to stay on course, to remain focused on the vision and goals regardless of setbacks
the parallel between what a leader says and what a leader does
a leader's support of employees and coworkers in times of need, whether personal, organizational, or professional
keeping promises and commitments and refusing to make promises that compromise the well-being of coworkers and the organization
getting people working on activities other than their daily tasks, giving employees a sense of importance in the organization
bringing people together so that their varied talents and skills can be complementary and mutually supportive, giving employees a sense of cooperation
Nature of groups
perform better than single person, more and better idea creation, division of labor, redundancy, better understanding, better solutions
Behaviors that define group
know each other by name or role, interconnected, interdependence, identification with group, leadership
Function of groups
primary work group, project team, self-managing team, quality circle, task force, affinity group
Variables that affect communication
cohesiveness, leadership, roles, norms
Group myths
members should be objective, enter a new group without preconceived notions,, conflict should be avoided, members should make "equal" contributions, groups should proceed in a certain way
the degree to which a group hangs together
recurring patterns that define accepted behavior within a group
agreement with or correspondence to a set of ideas, rules, or principles
the tendency of group members to seek agreement solely for agreement's sake
presentation of competing views on a controversial issue
Devil's advocate
the group member who introduces dissent into decision-making processes
the member of a group who speaks the most, speaks the most to the group as a whole, is spoken to the most, and directs communication in the group to productive levels
the personalities, physical appearances, or behaviors of people in a group
Leadership style
the behaviors that leaders use when interacting with group members
Situational Leadership
leadership style that involves adapting behaviors to the situation at hand rather than relying on one "best" style in all situations
a combination of a group's willingness and ability to perform a task
Directing phase
phase of situational leadership in which a leader must provide a great deal of guidance to the group
Coaching phase
phase of situational leadership in which the leader is in the role of peer and gives compliments, reassures, minimizes doubts, and encourages productivity
Supporting phase
phase of situational leadership in which the leader is in the role of peer and gives compliments, reassures, minimizes doubts, and encourages productivity
Delegating phase
phase of situational leadership in which the leader directly or indirectly moves responsibility for group tasks, creativity, solutions, and decisions to group members
Functional leadership
style of leadership in which groups rise to an occasion and perform needed leadership functions
Authoritarian decision making
style of decision making in which a leader hands down a decision to the group
Laissez faire decision making
style of decision-making in which there is minimal involvement by the group leader
Participative decision making
style of decision-making in which the leader makes decisions with the group
Quality circle
groups of employees who meet on a regular basis during work time to improve quality control and job methods
Self-managing Teams
small groups of employees who share the responsibility for a significant task
Affinity group
a group consisting of eight to twelve members in a sponsoring organization that meet on a regular basis to exchange information, ideas, opinions, and experiences on a variety of issues in a safe and supportive atmosphere, resulting in personal and professional growth
a guide that specifies what is to be discussed when, in what order, and for how long
number of members required to be present for a group to conduct business officially
Reading the minutes
summarization of what took place in previous meetings of the group
Special committees
temporary subgroups created to look into short-term or specific problems
Standing committees
permanent subgroups that concentrate on long-term developments in broad areas
Organizational goals
goals that are set at upper levels of an organization's hierarchy and describe pathways to excellence
Group goals
goals that serve the mission and purpose of the group itself
Process goals
goals that attempt to improve the working of the group itself
Individual goals
goals that group members have in addition to the group's stated goals
the process of tearing apart an issue and examining its component parts to see how they relate to the whole
the ability to pull various data together and draw sound conclusions from them
Deductive reasoning
type of reasoning that moves from general truths to specific conclusions
a three part argument containing a general truth, a related claim, and a conclusion
Inductive reasoning
type of reasoning that moves from specific statements to general conclusions
Example reasoning
type of reasoning based on collecting specific cases and then making a generalization based on them
Sign reasoning
type of reasoning that draws conclusions from simple observations
Hasty generalization
conclusions based on small or nonrepresentative samples of data
Comparative reasoning
type of reasoning that pulls together two examples and assumes that what is true in the first case must be true in the second case
Casual reasoning
the type of reasoning that asserts that one factor is strong enough to product an effect in another factor, asks the question "Why did that happen"
an extension of casual reasoning in which you ask not only "Why did that happen?" but also "What does it mean"
the process of making judgments about information or data
Problem solving
the process of defining a problem and generating solutions
Reflective thinking
a five-step process whose success depends on each group member's willingness to participate
Nominal group technique (NGT)
technique that allows groups to discuss problems and solutions in a relatively structured setting
Delphi technique
technique that uses questionnaires to collect opinions and judgments from experts, who usually remain anonymous
unanimous agreement among group members concerning a particular decision
dimension of group evaluation that looks at how well the group's activities and communication are coordinated
dimension of group evaluation that looks at how the group's activities and communication are coordinated
dimension of group evaluation in which the emphasis is on how well the members of the group work with one another
Decision making methods
consensus, majority, minority, authority
Difference between leadership and management
manage people, manage things, do the right thing, do things right, influence people, coordinate activity
Transactional leadership theory
a transaction occurs when each party gives up something for something else
when the core, or root characteristics are changed (values, motivation)
Trait theories
people are born with certain traits to be a leader
Style theories
people can be educated and trained
Situational theories
choice of leadership: needs of situation, needs of collowers; adaptability (tell, sell, delegate, participate)
Superleadership theories
lead others to lead themselves
Transformational theories
creative, visionary passionate, empowering
Legitimate power base
power from position, title, or role occupied
Reward power base
have control over some desired resource for distribution
Coercive power base
perceived ability to punish or enforce sanctions
Referent power base
based on identification with another person, role model
Expert power bade
possession of desired or needed information, skills, or abilities
belonging to networks valued by other people
an inclination to argue or a fondness for arguing
Verbal aggressiveness
the tendency to attack other people instead of other points of view
a planned and structured process of communication in which two or more people with different goals exchange communication to produce a mutually desirable outcome
Formal bargaining
process that develops when recurring issues require deliberation and confrontation over time
Informal bargaining
process that involves spontaneous situations that are seldom repeated
moving the focus of the negotiation to issues that are important to you
giving up some goals to obtain something in return
Cooperative strategies
open, honest, and upfront attempts at objective and productive problem solving
Competitive strategies
attempts to maximize one's own position at the expense of the adversary
the bargainer's assumption that a gain for her or his side equals a loss to the other side
an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals
Content goals
the apparent issues or obvious reasons for a dispute
Relational goals
define each party's importance to the other, the emotional distance they wish to maintain, the influence each is willing to grant the other, the degree to which the parties are seen as a unit, or the rights each party is willing to grant to the others
Situational factors
elements in the conflict that affect the nature of conflict and the styles you select to deal with them
Communication competence
the strengths and weaknesses you possess in any conflict situation
Conflict escalation
heightened tensions in conflict situations due to poor communication or misunderstandings
Nature of conflict
occurs on many levels, built into some systems, influence by cultured, nonverbal become magnified, problem is in managing consistency
Positive conflict in culture
identify problems, unify a group, educational, lead to better solutions and decisions
Negative conflict in culture
threatens individuals, avoidance behaviors, withholding information, cause cynicism and reduced communication
Latent stage of conflict
antecedent, stress
Emergent stage of conflict
perceived and felt; conflict erupts, is acknowledged, win/lose approach
Aftermath stage of conflict
use of a 3rd party, conflicting parties, facilities communication
mediation, has authority to make decisions, may be legally binding
process, formal or informal, to reach agreement
Cooperative strategies
open, honest, up front, productive, problem solving, finding negotiation with mutual goals and gains in mind
Competitive strategies
gain for one, loss for another, may involve deception or diversionary maneuvers, challenging, disagreeing, rejection, accusations, threats, attacks
Negotiation process
analyze, plan, bargain, reach agreement, evaluate
Barriers to negotiation
emphasis on winning, refusal to negotiate, over confidence, lack of perspective taking, escalating, listening problems, deception