124 terms

Psychology

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Encoding
Getting information in
storage
maintaining it
retrivial
getting it out
Encoding: Attention
which entails a selective focus on certain input, enhances encoding.
Encoding: divided attention
undermines encoding and can have a negative effect on the performance of other tasks (doing 2 or more tasks at once).
Encoding: Levels of Processing
proposes that deeper levels of processing result in more durable memory codes.
Encoding: Elaboration
which involves linking a stimulus to other information, can enrich encoding. can help people remember information.
Encoding: Dual-coding
visual imagery will help by providing two memory codes.
Encoding: motivation
increasing motivation to remember at the time of encoding can enhance memory.
Storage
information-processing theories purpose people have three memory stores: sensory memory, short-term memory stm, and long term memory ltm
Retrieval
recall is often guided by partial information, as demonstrated by the tip-of-the-tongue
reinstating
the context of an event can often enhance retrieval efforts.
Retrieval: memories
memories are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted.
Retrieval: misinformation
effect occurs when recall of an event is changed by misleading post-event information.
Retrieval: retelling
even the simple act of retelling a story can introduce inaccuracies into memory.
Retrieval: source monitoring
is the process of making inferences about the origins of memories.
Sensory memory
preserves information in its original form for a very brief time.
Sensory: memory traces
is the sensory store appear to decay in about one-quarter of a second.
short-term memory
can maintain memory unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds.
short-term memory
has a limited capacity that has long been believed to be about seven items plus or minus two.
STM: working memory capacity
refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention.
long-term memory
is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information indefinitely.
ltm: flashbulb memories
suggest that LTM storage may be permanent, but the data are not convincing.
Organization of LTM
people spontaneously organize information into categories for storage in memory.
Organization of LTM: conceptual hierarchy
is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items.
Organization of LTM: schema
is a organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event.
Organization of LTM: semantic network
consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
Forgetting: measuring forgetting
people view forgetting as a deficiency, but it can be adaptive by making it easier to remember important information.
Forgetting: measuring forgetting
ebbinghaus's work suggested that most forgetting occurs very rapidly but subsequent research indicated that his forgetting curve was exceptionally steep.
Forgetting measuring forgetting
retention can be assessed with a recall measure, a recognition measure, or a relearning measure.
why we forget
a great deal of forgetting, including pseudo forgetting , is due to ineffective encoding.
why we foregt
decay theory proposes that memory traces fade with time , but decay in long-term memory has proven hard to demonstrate
why we forget
interference theory asserts that people forget information because of competition form other material, which has proven easy to demonstrate.
why we forget
forgetting is often due to retrieval failure, which can include repression.
Physiology of memory: anatomy of memory
retrograde amnesia, a person loses memory for events prior to the amnesia.
Physiology of memory: anatomy of memory
anterograde amnesia, a person shows memory deficits for events subsequent to the onset of amnesia.
Physiology of memory: anatomy of memory
studies of amnesia and other research suggest that the hippocampus and broader medial temporal lobe system play a major role in memory.
Physiology of memory: anatomy of memory
these areas may be crucial to the consolidation of memories.
neural circuitry of memory
thompsons research suggests that memory traces may consist of localized neural circuits.
neural circuitry of memory
according to kandel, memory traces reflect alternations in neurotransmitter release at specific synapses.
neural circuitry of memory
neurogenesis may contribute to the sculpting of neural circuits for memory.
Hippocampus
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
declarative memory
handles recall of factual information, such as names, dates, events, and ideas.
nondeclarative memory
handles recall of action, skills, and operations, such as riding a bike or typing.
semantic vs episodic memory
both are types of Declarative Memory. SEMANTIC - the FACTS (ex. 2+2=4) + EPISODIC - EVENTS (ex. The other day there was traffic on the 101).
Prospective vs. Retrospective
both are types of nondeclarative memory. prospective memory involves remembering to preform actions in the future. Retrospective memory involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information.
p: start now and observe over a future period of time
r: look at data from the past
autobiographical memory
the memory for events and facts related to one's personal life story
context dependent memory
improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same
right prefrontal cortex
associated w/ - emotions
short term and long term memory
hippocampus, consolodation
consciousness
is awareness of internal and external stimuli, including awareness of a self and your thoughts
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
The world of dreams: the nature of dreams
- dreams are less exotic than widely assumed
- dreams can be affected by external stimuli and events in ones life
- cultural variations are seen in dream content, dream interpretation, and the importance attributed to dreams.
Theories of Dreaming
wish-fulfillment, information processing, activation synthesis, physiological and cognitive
alternating consciousness with drugs
narcotics- drugs derived from opium, such a heroin
alternating consciousness with drugs
sedatives- sleep-inducing drugs that decrease CNS activation
alternating consciousness with drugs
stimulants-drugs that increase CNS activation, such as cocaine and amphetamines.
alternating consciousness with drugs
hallucinogens- drugs that produce sensory distortions and diverse mental and emotional effects, such as lsd.
alternating consciousness with drugs
cannabis- hemp plant from which marijuana, hash, and thc are derived.
alternating consciousness with drugs
Alcohol , ethyl
Light waves
vary in amplitudes which affect perceptions of brightness
light waves
vary in wavelength which affects perceptions of color
light waves
vary in purity which affects perceptions of saturation
lens
Focuses light onto retina
pupil
regulates the amount of light passing to the rear of the eye
Retina
The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain.
Fovea
which is a tiny spot in the center of the retina where visual activity is greatest
visual receptors (in the retina)
rods and cones
rods
Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision.
cones
color vision, greater than rods
receptive field
are collections of rods and cones that funnel signals to specific visual cells in the retina or the brain
main visual pathway
projects through the thalamus, where signals are processed and distributed to the occipital lobe
second visual pathway
handles coordination of visual input with other sensory input
primary vision cortex
in the occipital lobe handles initial processing of visual input.
feature detectors
neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli
visual pathway
Eye, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, thalamus, visual cortex (occipital lobe)
auditory system
parts of the ear needed for hearing and the pathway responsible for transferring sound information to the brain
sound waves
sounds waves vary in amplitude which affect the perception of loudness
sound waves
sounds waves vary in wavelength which affects the perception of pitch
sound waves
sound waves vary in purity which affects the perception of purity of timbre
pinna
outer ear; sound collecting zone
eardrum
which is a taut membrane (at the end of the auditory canal) that vibrates in response to sound waves
ossicles
three tiny bones in the middle ear that convert vibrations
Chochlea
fluid filled, coiled tunnel that houses the inner ears neutral tissue
basilar membrane
holds the hair cells that serve as auditory receptors
taste cells
absorbs chemicals in saliva and trigger neural impulses routed through the thalamus
smell
Olfactory
touch
Sensory cells sensitive to temperature, pressure, pain, and texture are found just below the skin's surface.
pain signals
travel along a fast pathway that registers localized pain and a slow pathway that carries less localized pain sensations
medial lemniscus
The somatosensory pathway between the dorsal column nuclei and the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus.
pain vs nociception
Nociceptive pain occurs when nociceptors in the body detect noxious stimuli that have the potential to cause harm to the body.
Endorphins
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Hypnosis
is a procedure that produces a heightened state of suggestibility
LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus)
A structure in the thalamus, part of the midbrain, that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells and has input and output connections to the visual cortex.
MGN
In the auditory pathway, most sound information passes through the auditory nerve to the brainstem, where it ascends to the
Gestalt
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
delta (0.5 to 4Hz)
slow wave sleep
Theta (4-8 Hz)
drowsiness, creative, meditation states
alpha (8-12Hz)
quiet, passive but wakeful states
beta (12-35Hz)
alter and focused states
gamma (+35 Hz)
hyper aroused states
Epliepsy
seizure disorder
The 10 - 20 EEG Montage
The 10-20 System of Electrode Placement is a method used to describe the location of scalp electrodes. These scalp electrodes are used to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) using a machine called an electroencephalograph. The EEG is a record of brain activity.
gamma activity
Gamma brain waves are a frequency pattern of normal brain activity that measures between 25 and 100 Hz, with around 40 Hz being typical in humans
characteristics of the correlation coefficient
The correlation coefficient, denoted by r, is a measure of the strength of the straight-line or linear relationship between two variables
Correlation vs. Causation
correlation does not equal causation
cofounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
face validity
extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring
standardized test
A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Measure of dispersion
range
mean
average
Median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
standard deviation image
intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
nominal
classification
Ordinal
rank, order
interval
degree of difference
ratio
ratio of difference
ITD
interaural time difference between sound between both ears
how to find standard deviation
1. Work out the Mean (the simple average of the numbers)
2. Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result
3. Then work out the mean of those squared differences.
4. Take the square root of that and we are done!