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Holleman Chapter 23 Review
Terms in this set (58)
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793); married louis xvi during the reign of terror; convicted of treason and executed; tried to escape France in June but were caught, and arrested and brought back to Paris; forced to live among the people who hated them the most
A Jacobin who led the Committee of Public Safety and wanted to kill any opposers to the revolution; very active in accusing people during the Reign of Terror later guillotined because the violence was getting out of hand; executed by government; eliminated all opposition to the new republican government through massive arrest and execution
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794); head of the Committee of Public Safety
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression; Key leader at the Congress of Vienna; 3 goals: to restore legitimate monarchs, maintain a balance of power in Europe, and to contain France; wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was mortally wounded at Trafalgar (1758-1805)
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo; leader of the combined British and Prussian Army
Olympe de Gouges
a proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were defending themselves. In her Declaration if the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of the male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas. also known as Marie Gouze
The first love and wife of Napoleon, she exerted great influence and style in France. Napoleon divorced her when she could not produce his children. wife of Napoleon for 15 years; first empress of France
niece of Marie Antoinette; part of Hapsburg family (Austria); mother of Napoleon I; 2nd wife of Napoleon
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revolution. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate). king of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him to power; He was the brother of Louis XVI and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824.
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was leader in overthrowing the Girondist and was stabbed to death in his bath tub by Charlotte Corday (1743-179) wrote a book called "Polish Letters"; harsh radical journalist in favor of violent revolution and author of a newspaper "Friends of the People"
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution. device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution; oath made by the Third Estate in an indoor tennis court after they thought he king was trying to disband them
Battle of Trafalgar
On October 21, 1805, the British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar off the Spanish Coast. Nelson died in battle, but the British lost no ships; Trafalgar ended all French hope of invading Britain and guaranteed British control of the sea for the rest of the war. 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Battle of Lepizig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coalition decisively defeated Napoleon and the French Army
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions; its aim was to maintain the status quo the congress had established (prevent Republicanism)
this was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyalty served the interest of both the state and the financial oligarchy; took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family monarchy".; Modified after napoleon's defeat
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
area where Napoleon was exiled (the second time), where Napoleon eventually died; happened after the Battle of Waterloo
Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign. The army that Napoleon assembled to invade Russia when Alexander 1 refused to follow the Continental System. Consisting of more than half a million men from all throughout the Napoleonic Empire, this army was used in an attempt to invade Russia
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women). imitating the American Declaration of Independence. French document that stated all men were born free and equal in rights
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed under the leadership of Robespierre
fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in; used to store gun powder in 1789
Estates General of 1789
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society
1st estate- the first class of the French society is made up of the clergy of the roman catholic church.
2nd estate- the second class of French society made up of the nobility
3rd estate- consisted of the Bourgeoisie and the peasantry; 98% of the population paid all the taxes; owned 55% of the land
Committee of Public Safety
Powerful group, led by Robespierre, set up to defeat all enemies of the revolution. Fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses; instigated the Reign of terror
this is the new government of France created in September 1792 after the Legislative assembly set aside the Constitution of 1791 and abolished the French monarchy; original dominated by moderates, later controlled by radical jacobins in 1793
The Hundred Days
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming the emperor of France
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
a French Congress with the power to create laws and approve declaration of war. Established by the Constitution in 1791
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
(1) uniform set of laws (2) stabilized the economy (3) set up government schools; Fairer tax code, national bank, appointed officials by merit, fired corrupt officials, created lyceeses govt. Run public schools, Napoleonic code-code of laws, signed concordat with pope.
Napoleon's defeat in Russia
-Napoleon invade Russia for violating the Continental System
-French were defeated by the harsh Russian winter
Political Reforms of the French Revolution
The Estates General never meets again; conservatives are more dominant; the creation of a limited constitutional monarchy with power to create laws and approve or reject declaration of war
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy; tax of the Old Regime
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
"without breeches"; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages
Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years; five man rule of France
The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War; seizes political power from the Legislative Assembly
Flight to Varennes
King Louis XVI and his families attempt to escape paris; made it only to Varennes where they were arrested and put on house arrest. End of French Monarchy; royal family tries to flee France
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
person who flees his or her country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
a government-run public school in France
a formal agreement - especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
The use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
Scorched Earth Policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
Balance of Power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
World History Chapter 23
World History Chapter 24
History Chapter 24
Chapter 27 - The Age of Imperialism
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