An Emerging New Nation Review
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Terms in this set (75)
Articles of Confederation
Plan that established, in 1781, a limited national government in the United States, later replaced by the Constitution of the United States
Government by the people
A government run by the people through their elected representatives
United States Constitution
The document that has governed the US for over 200 years
People who favored the Constitution
People who opposed to the Constitution
Second President of the United States, 1797-1801; worked to relieve increasing tensions with France; lost reelection bid to Jefferson in 1800 as the country moved away from Federalist policies
Third President of the United States, 1801-1809; main author of the Declaration of Independence; a firm believer in the people and decentralized power; reduced the federal government
Marbury vs. Madison
1803 Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review
The power to deem something unconstitutional
Purchase by the United States of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803
Lewis & Clark
Leaders of expedition through the West beginning in 1804; brought back scientific samples, maps, and information on Native Americans
1819 treaty between the United States and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the United States; also called the Transcontinental Treaty
Effort, beginning in Britain in the late 1700s, to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals
The inventor of interchangeable parts and the cotton gin, which rapidly increased cotton production in the South and led to a greater demand for slave labor
A system of manufacturing in which all parts are made to an exact standard for easy mass assembly
Machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fiber
Invented the steam boat. The first one was named Clermont and was the first to go up the Hudson river in 1807. People began to use the steamboat for transportation and moving goods.
Invented the Textile Mill. He worked in Britain's advanced textile industry until he immigrated to America in 1789. He worked in a clothes show and began to replicate the machinery of the British Mills in 1790. He went on to establish the first successful textile mill in 1793. Others soon copied his invention and the growth of industry grew larger.
A symbol of the American pioneer who explored Kentucky and cut the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap
Best known of these canals & had the best impact (opened in 1825)
B & O Railroad
Began construction in Baltimore Maryland in 1828. It was the Baltimore and Ohio Line. There were 3,300 miles of track by 1840.
Helped make slavery a difficult issue to solve. Migration from the U.S. into western territories surged in the 1830s and 1840s. Many Americans believed in manifest destiny, or the undeniable fate of the U.S. to possess the entire continent.
Andrew Jackson & Florida
•In 1819, General Jackson was charged with protecting the settlers in Florida from Seminoles Indian attack.
•He led an attack against the Seminole Indians in Florida land claimed by the Spanish.
•This outraged Spain and angered President Monroe, but the American people loved him for it.
Texas War for Independence
−In 1822, Stephen Austin founded a small colony in northern Mexico- Texas.
−In 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna strips Texas of its rights of self-government and the Texans begin their own war for independence from Mexico.
−After the brutal Texas defeat at the Battle of the Alamo (see pg. 109), Texans were re energized and renewed in their efforts to win their independence.
−On March 2, 1836, the rebels formally declared the founding of an independent Republic of Texas.
−The next month, a Texan force led by Sam Houston shouting "Remember the Alamo!" capture Mexican General Santa Anna forcing him to sign a treaty recognizing Texas as an independent nation.
−In 1836, Sam Houston is elected as their first president.
−In 1845, Texas joins the U.S. as a slave state.
After the brutal Texas defeat at the Battle of the Alamo, Texans were re-energized and renewed in their efforts to win their independence.
The undeniable fate of the US to possess the entire continent
The making of goods by machinery
Growth of industry
A new generation of Americans began buying and selling goods, borrowing and circulating money, and creating wealth; change in the way Americans made, bought, and sold goods
Wealth that can be invested to produce goods and make money
Tariff Crisis & State's Rights
•Although Jackson believed in limiting the power of the federal government, he would take strong action when necessary.
•In 1828, when a high tariff on foreign imports angered the southern states so greatly that South Carolina decided to nullify, or reject the law and also threatened to secede or break away from the Union, Jackson forced the bill and threatened to send 50,000 federal troops to S. Carolina to enforce it.
• South Carolina's nullification threat was based on a strict interpretation of states' rights. States' rights are the powers that the Constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states.
To break away
Trail of Tears
The forced movement of Cherokees in 1838 to land west of the Mississippi River
Indian Removal Act
Authorized him to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for lands taken from them in the East
Farming, especially cotton
Industrialization & manufacturing
Andrew Jackson's Presidency
• 1st president from west of Appalachian Mountains
• Came to presidency through popular support
• Votes cast for President tripled between 1824 and 1828, to 1.1 million
• Jackson made it official that after winning an election, he gave government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party, instead of merit basis.
• Jackson defended that any intelligent person could be a competent public official & argued that "rotation in office" would prevent small group of wealthy, well-connected people from controlling government.
• In 1828, when a high tariff on foreign imports angered the southern states but benefited the North.
• South Carolina decided to nullify, or reject the law and also threatened to secede from the Union.
• The strict interpretation of states' rights that SC endorsed is state sovereignty.
• In 1833, Congress passed the Forced Bill and Jackson threatened to send 50,000 federal troops to enforce the law.
• Limit the power of federal government
• Used his veto power to restrict federal activity & rejected acts of Congress
Indian Relocation Act
• In 1830, Jackson encouraged Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act - authorized him to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for lands taken from them in the East.
• For their 100 million acres of cultivated land, they received 32 million acres of prairie land in what is now Oklahoma.
• In 1838, the United States Army rounded up more than 15,000 Cherokees and forced them on a 116 day march westward called the Trail of Tears. 1 out of every 4 Cherokees died of cold or disease on the journey.
• Jackson opposed the National Bank and saw it as a "monster institution" controlled by a small group of wealthy easterners.
• In 1832, Congress voted to recharter the bank, challenging Jackson to veto the bill.
• This veto did not cost him the 1832 election. He won by a huge margin.
The movement to end slavery; led by free blacks and whites
William Lloyd Garrison
One of the most famous of the radical abolitionists who, in 1831, began publishing The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper. He also founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
One of the nation's most influential African-American abolitionist & an agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He published his own abolitionist newspaper, The North Star.
Used by slaves to travel to the free north. There were many stops and conductors that helped people get along.
The leader of the underground railroad
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote the 1852 abolitionist novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin. She wrote it to show the slavery was evil and that the Fugitive Slave Law was unjust
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book used to show that the Fugitive Slave Law was unjust
An African-American & former slave; she traveled up & down the land preaching the truth about God at revival meetings
Accepted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Also maintained balance in Senate between slave and free states, but did not in western territories whether they would be free or slave. Also, set the boundary between free and slave. states.
Proposed the Compromise of 1850, and it was necessary to help keep the balance between the free and slave states in the Senate.
Compromise of 1850
1. California would be admitted into the Union as a free state.
2. The people of the New Mexico and Utah territories would decide for themselves whether to allow slavery.
3. Congress would abolish the sale of enslaved people, but not slavery.
4. Texas would give up claims to New Mexico for $10 million.
5. A Fugitive Slave Act would order all citizens of the U.S. to assist in the return of escaped slaves and would deny a jury trial to escaped slaves.
Kansas-Nebraska Act - Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. His proposal would allow Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether slavery would be allowed in those two new territories, a principle known as popular sovereignty. Both territories lay north of 36º 30' N, which the Missouri Compromise had set the boundary between slave and free territories. So this was a repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
The Dred-Scott Decision
Was one of the most controversial decisions in history. The case had started when Dred Scott, an enslaved man living in Missouri, had filed suit against his owner. Scott argued that because he and his wife had once lived in states where slavery was illegal, the couple was in fact free. The Court ruled against Scott, holding that Scott, and therefore all slaves, were not citizens, and therefore had no rights in court. Most important, the Court found that Congress had no power to ban slavery anywhere because slaves were private property.
He debated with Douglas in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates for an Illinois seat in the Senate. Gained fame from his stance in politics and is known as a great speaker. He had a well known speech saying that a house cannot stand divided and one day the U.S.A. will be all slavery or not. He became the president of the U.S.A. in 1860 election.
He and a small group of men attacked the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He and his followers hoped to seize the weapons and give them to enslaved people to start a slave uprising. United States troops under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee cornered and defeated his men. Convicted of treason, he was sentenced to be hanged.
Election of 1860
When Lincoln won this without a single electoral vote in the South, it sectionalized the nation. Southerners were outraged that a President could be elected without any southern electoral votes.
Confederate States of America
Formed by South Carolina when they seceded from the united states
Elected president of the Confederate States of America
Causes of the Civil War
The Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Scott vs. Sandford case, and Abraham Lincoln's election
A Federal fort. When the north was bringing supplies to it, the south fired, forcing them to retreat with the valuable supplies. This is where the war began.
Determining the Future of Slavery
During the period 1820-1860, the major concerns in the United States dealt with issues related to... (multiple choice)
• determining the future of slavery
• imposing immigration quotas
• developing big business
• acquiring an overseas empire
What was the name of the Boston school teacher who persuaded the state of Massachusetts to improve prisons and create separate facilities for the mentally ill?
the dispute of the southern boundary of Texas
The War with Mexico exploded over this
Women's Suffrage, Women's Rights, Prison Reform, Public Education, and The Temperance Movement
What reform movements emerged in the early 1800s?
In the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, anti-slavery groups, or free-soilers, came to "settle" in Kansas to stack the vote against slavery. Proslavery settlers also crossed into Kansas to vote illegally. It escalated into violent raids and counter-raids that gave Kansas the nickname of _______________________________
E. All of these answer choices are correct
All of the following are parts of the Monroe Doctrine, EXCEPT
• a. U.S. would not get involved in internal affairs of Europe
• b. Recoginzed existing colonies in western hemisphere
• c. Would not permit further colonization in North America
• d. U.S. would view any attempt by Europe to control any nation in the western hemisphere as hostile
• e. All of these answer choices are correct
a work stoppage
Henry David Thoreau
He wrote Walden
campaign to eliminate alchol consumption
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized first women's rights convention
Pioneer of the public education movement
Fugitive Slave Law
Part of the Compromise of 1850 requiring that runaway slaves be returned to their owners